#### Alignment with New Jersey Core Content Curriculum Standards, Strands, and Cumulative Progress Indicators (to be completed by the end of Grade 8)

Investigation 2-4
Backpacks and Back Pain

 Synopsis:  Students test the hypothesis that carrying a heavy backpack causes back pain.  Using a 2x2 table, students perform an in-class observational study by collecting and analyzing data from the "natural experiment" that they perform on themselves by carrying their backpacks.  This first-hand experience in conducting an observational study helps students understand procedures involved in creating definitions of an exposure and an outcome, displaying data in a 2x2 table, calculating risks, comparing risks (calculating relative risk), and making inferences. Return to Investigation 2-4

Note: Click on one of the seven fields below to move to the standards of that discipline.

 SCIENCE Standard 5.1: Scientific Processes All students will develop problem-solving, decision-making, and inquiry skills, reflected by formulating usable questions and hypotheses, planning experiments, conducting systematic observations, interpreting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and communicating results. Strand A: Habits of Mind Strand B: Inquiry and Problem Solving Standard 5.3: Mathematical Applications All students will integrate mathematics as a tool for problem-solving in science, and as a means of expressing and / or modeling scientific theories. Strand A: Numerical Operations Strand D: Data Analysis and Probability

 HEALTH Standard 2.1: Wellness All students will learn and apply health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle. Strand A: Personal Health Strand D: Diseases and Health Conditions Standard 2.2: Integrated Skills All students will use health-enhancing personal, interpersonal, and life skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle. Strand A: Communication Strand B: Decision-Making Strand E: Leadership, Advocacy, and Service

 MATHEMATICS Standard 4.1: Number and numerical operations All students will develop number sense and will perform standard numerical operations and estimations on all types of numbers in a variety of ways. Strand A: Number Sense Strand B: Numerical Operations Standard 4.3: Patterns and Algebra All students will represent and analyze relationships among variable quantities and solve problems involving patterns, functions, and algebraic concepts and processes. Strand A: Patterns and Relationships Strand C: Modeling Strand D: Procedures Standard 4.4: Data Analysis, Probability and Discrete Mathematics All students will develop an understanding of the concepts and techniques of data analysis, probability, and discrete mathematics, and will use them to model situations, solve problems, and analyze and draw appropriate inferences from data. Strand A: Data Analysis (Statistics) Strand B: Probability Strand C: Discrete Mathematics - Systematic Listing and Counting Standard 4.5: Mathematical Processes All students will use mathematical processes of problem solving, communication, connections, reasoning, representations, and technology to solve problems and communicate mathematical ideas. Strand A: Problem Solving Strand B: Communication Strand C: Connections Strand D: Reasoning Strand E: Representations Strand F: Technology

 LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 3.2: Writing All students will write in clear, concise, organized language that varies in content and form for different audiences and purposes. Strand B: Writing as a Product Strand C: Mechanics, Spelling, and Handwriting Strand D: Writing Forms, Audiences, and Purposes Standard 3.3: Speaking All students will speak in clear, concise, organized language that varies in content and form for different audiences and purposes. Strand A: Discussion Strand B: Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing Strand C: Word Choice Strand D: Oral Presentation Standard 3.4: Listening All students will listen actively to information from a variety of sources in a variety of situations. Strand A: Active Listening Strand B: Listening Comprehension

 CAREER EDUCATION AND CONSUMER, FAMILY, AND LIFE SKILLS Standard 9.2: Consumer, Family, and Life Skills All students will demonstrate critical life skills in order to be functional members of society. Strand A: Critical Thinking Strand B: Self Management Strand C: Interpersonal Communication Strand D: Character Development and Ethics