#### Alignment with New Jersey Core Content Curriculum Standards, Strands, and Cumulative Progress Indicators (to be completed by the end of Grade 8)

Investigation 3-2
Cause

 Synopsis:  Students explore the first of several explanations for finding an association: causation.  Students envision how data would be distributed in a 2x2 table for the known causal association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.  Given that there are people who have smoked and not developed lung cancer (cell b) and there are people who have never smoked and developed lung cancer (cell c), students begin to appreciate what epidemiologists mean when they say that an exposure and an outcome are causally associated. Return to Investigation 3-2

Note: Click on one of the seven fields below to move to the standards of that discipline.

 SCIENCE Standard 5.1: Scientific Processes All students will develop problem-solving, decision-making, and inquiry skills, reflected by formulating usable questions and hypotheses, planning experiments, conducting systematic observations, interpreting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and communicating results. Strand A: Habits of Mind Standard 5.3: Mathematical Applications All students will integrate mathematics as a tool for problem-solving in science, and as a means of expressing and / or modeling scientific theories. Strand D: Data Analysis and Probability

 HEALTH Standard 2.1: Wellness All students will learn and apply health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle. Strand A: Personal Health Standard 2.2: Integrated Skills All students will use health-enhancing personal, interpersonal, and life skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle. Strand A: Communication Strand B: Decision-Making Strand E: Leadership, Advocacy, and Service

 MATHEMATICS Standard 4.1: Number and numerical operations All students will develop number sense and will perform standard numerical operations and estimations on all types of numbers in a variety of ways. Strand A: Number Sense Standard 4.3: Patterns and Algebra All students will represent and analyze relationships among variable quantities and solve problems involving patterns, functions, and algebraic concepts and processes. Strand A: Patterns and Relationships Strand C: Modeling Standard 4.4: Data Analysis, Probability and Discrete Mathematics All students will develop an understanding of the concepts and techniques of data analysis, probability, and discrete mathematics, and will use them to model situations, solve problems, and analyze and draw appropriate inferences from data. Strand A: Data Analysis (Statistics) Strand B: Probability Strand C: Discrete Mathematics - Systematic Listing and Counting Standard 4.5: Mathematical Processes All students will use mathematical processes of problem solving, communication, connections, reasoning, representations, and technology to solve problems and communicate mathematical ideas. Strand A: Problem Solving Strand B: Communication Strand C: Connections Strand D: Reasoning Strand E: Representations

 LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 3.1: Reading All students will understand and apply the knowledge of sounds, letters, and words in written English to become independent and fluent readers, and will read a variety of materials and texts with fluency and comprehension. Strand F: Vocabulary and Concept Development Standard 3.3: Speaking All students will speak in clear, concise, organized language that varies in content and form for different audiences and purposes. Strand A: Discussion Strand B: Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing Strand C: Word Choice Standard 3.4: Listening All students will listen actively to information from a variety of sources in a variety of situations. Strand A: Active Listening Strand B: Listening Comprehension Standard 3.5: Viewing and Media Literacy All students will access, view, evaluate, and respond to print, nonprint, and electronic texts and resources. Strand B: Visual and Verbal Messages

 CAREER EDUCATION AND CONSUMER, FAMILY, AND LIFE SKILLS Standard 9.2: Consumer, Family, and Life Skills All students will demonstrate critical life skills in order to be functional members of society. Strand A: Critical Thinking