#### Alignment with New Jersey Core Content Curriculum Standards, Strands, and Cumulative Progress Indicators (to be completed by the end of Grade 8)

Investigation 3-6
Selection Bias

 Synopsis:  Students explore the fifth of five possible explanations for finding an association: bias.  Students critique a hypothetical study testing the hypothesis that heavy backpacks cause back pain and learn how the selection of a sample of subjects for a study can produce an association when no association exists in the overall population.  They continue to learn that causation is only one explanation for finding an association between an exposure and an outcome; that because observational studies are flawed, other explanations must also be considered, including selection bias. Return to Investigation 3-6

Note: Click on one of the seven fields below to move to the standards of that discipline.

 SCIENCE Standard 5.1: Scientific Processes All students will develop problem-solving, decision-making, and inquiry skills, reflected by formulating usable questions and hypotheses, planning experiments, conducting systematic observations, interpreting and analyzing data, drawing conclusions, and communicating results. Strand A: Habits of Mind Standard 5.3: Mathematical Applications All students will integrate mathematics as a tool for problem-solving in science, and as a means of expressing and / or modeling scientific theories. Strand A: Numerical Operations

 HEALTH Standard 2.1: Wellness All students will learn and apply health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle. Strand A: Personal Health Standard 2.2: Integrated Skills All students will use health-enhancing personal, interpersonal, and life skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle. Strand B: Decision-Making Strand E: Leadership, Advocacy, and Service

 MATHEMATICS Standard 4.5: Mathematical Processes All students will use mathematical processes of problem solving, communication, connections, reasoning, representations, and technology to solve problems and communicate mathematical ideas. Strand C: Connections Strand D: Reasoning

 LANGUAGE ARTS Standard 3.3: Speaking All students will speak in clear, concise, organized language that varies in content and form for different audiences and purposes. Strand A: Discussion Strand B: Questioning (Inquiry) and Contributing Strand C: Word Choice Standard 3.4: Listening All students will listen actively to information from a variety of sources in a variety of situations. Strand A: Active Listening Strand B: Listening Comprehension

 CAREER EDUCATION AND CONSUMER, FAMILY, AND LIFE SKILLS Standard 9.2: Consumer, Family, and Life Skills All students will demonstrate critical life skills in order to be functional members of society. Strand A: Critical Thinking Strand C: Interpersonal Communication Strand D: Character Development and Ethics