Investigation 21
The 2 X 2 Table
Synopsis: Students examine the results of a hypothetical study to determine if
a medication prevents acne. In doing so, students uncover that a scientific
study needs to examine not only people who are exposed to the medication,
but a group of people who are not exposed to the medication. Students
construct 2x2 tables and realize that when they study how an exposure
and an outcome (disease) are distributed, every person in the study
population fits into one of the four cells of the 2x2 table. Students
also realize that the way an exposure and an outcome are distributed
in a group of people can be expressed mathematically. 
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Note: Click on one of the seven fields below to move to the standards of that discipline.
Science  Health  Mathematics  Language Arts  Social Studies  Technology 
SCIENCE  
Unifying Concepts and Processes K12  
Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards. 

As a result of activities in grades K  12, all students should develop:  
1: Science as Inquiry  
Inquiry requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop an understanding of scientific concepts, an appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science, an understanding of the nature of science, the skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world, and the dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science. 

6: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives  
An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decisionmaking skills. 

7: History and Nature of Science  
In learning science, students need to understand that science reflects its history and is an ongoing, changing enterprise. The standards for the history and nature of science recommend the use of history in school science programs to clarify different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role that science has played in the development of various cultures. 
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HEALTH  
By the end of Grade 8, students will:  
1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention  
Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention. 

6: Setting Goals for Good Health  
Students will demonstrate the ability to use goalsetting and decisionmaking skills to enhance health. 

7: Health Advocacy  
Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health. 
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MATHEMATICS  
In grades 68, all students should:  
1. Numbers and Operations  
Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. 

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another. 

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. 

2. Algebra  
Understand patterns, relations, and functions. 

Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols. 

Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships. 

Analyze change in various contexts. 

5. Data Analysis and Probability  
Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data. 

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data. 

Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data. 

Understand and apply basic concepts of probability. 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to:  
1. Problem Solving  
Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving. 

Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts. 

Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems. 

Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving. 

2. Reasoning and Proof  
Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. 

Make and investigate mathematical conjectures. 

Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs. 

Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof. 

3. Communication  
Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication. 

Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others. 

Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others. 

Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely. 

4. Connections  
Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas. 

Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole. 

Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics. 
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LANGUAGE ARTS  
Grades K  12  
4: Communication Skills  
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. 
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SOCIAL STUDIES 
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TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY  
Grades K12  
5: Technology Research Tools  
Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources. 

Students use technology tools to process data and report results. 

Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations based on the appropriateness for specific tasks. 

6: Technology ProblemSolving and DecisionMaking Tools  
Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions. 

Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world. 
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