Alignment with National Content Curriculum Standards

Investigation 2-2
Compared to What?

Synopsis:  Students examine the need for a control group and have more experience in using a 2x2 table.  First, students learn how risks are calculated from the 2x2 table.  Students then compare the risks of disease among the exposed and unexposed groups of people.  This calculation is called a relative risk.  From the relative risk, students learn to make inferences based on the similarities or differences between two risks.

Students realize that a hypothesis can only be tested when risks of getting a disease are compared among exposed and unexposed groups.  They also learn the importance of calculating a relative risk by realizing that the same risk of getting a disease in the exposed group (for example 10%) may lead to different inferences depending on the rate of disease in the unexposed group (10%, 1%, or 40%).

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Science Health Mathematics Language Arts Social Studies Technology

Unifying Concepts and Processes K-12

Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards.

As a result of activities in grades K - 12, all students should develop:
1: Science as Inquiry

Inquiry requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop an understanding of scientific concepts, an appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science, an understanding of the nature of science, the skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world, and the dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science.

6: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decision-making skills.

7: History and Nature of Science

In learning science, students need to understand that science reflects its history and is an ongoing, changing enterprise. The standards for the history and nature of science recommend the use of history in school science programs to clarify different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role that science has played in the development of various cultures.

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By the end of Grade 8, students will:
1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

6: Setting Goals for Good Health

Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting and decision-making skills to enhance health.

7: Health Advocacy

Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

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In grades 6-8, all students should:
1. Numbers and Operations

Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.

2. Algebra

Understand patterns, relations, and functions.

Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.

Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.

Analyze change in various contexts.

5. Data Analysis and Probability

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data.

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.

Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.

Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.

Instructional programs from pre-kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to:
1. Problem Solving

Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.

Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts.

Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving.

2. Reasoning and Proof

Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics.

Make and investigate mathematical conjectures.

Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs.

Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.

3. Communication

Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication.

Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.

Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others.

Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.

4. Connections

Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas.

Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.

Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

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Grades K - 12
4: Communication Skills

Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

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Grades K-12
5: Technology Research Tools

Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.

Students use technology tools to process data and report results.

Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.

6: Technology Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Tools

Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions.

Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world.

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