Alignment with National Content Curriculum Standards


Investigation 2-5
Observational Studies

Synopsis:  This investigation is divided into two parts.  In Part 1, students work in Epi Teams to select their own hypotheses and design and conduct an in-class observational study.  Students create questions that will allow them to count and classify their "exposure" and "outcome," assure that participants have given their informed consent, collect data, display data in a 2x2 table, calculate risks and a relative risk, and make inferences.  In Part 2, each Epi Team presents their study results to the class, according to the IMRAD format (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion).

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Note: Click on one of the seven fields below to move to the standards of that discipline.

Science Health Mathematics Language Arts Social Studies Technology


SCIENCE
 
Unifying Concepts and Processes K-12

Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards.

 
As a result of activities in grades K - 12, all students should develop:
1: Science as Inquiry

Inquiry requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop an understanding of scientific concepts, an appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science, an understanding of the nature of science, the skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world, and the dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science.

 
5: Science and Technology

The science and technology standards establish connections between the natural and designed worlds and provide students with opportunities to develop decision-making abilities. They are not standards for technology education, rather, these standards emphasize abilities associated with the process of design and fundamental understandings about the enterprise of science and its various linkages with technology.

 
6: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decision-making skills.


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HEALTH
 
By the end of Grade 8, students will:
1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention.

 
4: Influences on Health

Students will analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health.

 
7: Health Advocacy

Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.


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MATHEMATICS
 
In grades 6-8, all students should:
1. Numbers and Operations

Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.

 
2. Algebra

Understand patterns, relations, and functions.

Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.

Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.

Analyze change in various contexts.

 
4. Measurements

Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.

Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.

 
5. Data Analysis and Probability

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data.

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.

Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.

Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.

 
Instructional programs from pre-kindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to:
1. Problem Solving

Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.

Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts.

Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.

Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving.

 
2. Reasoning and Proof

Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics.

Make and investigate mathematical conjectures.

Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs.

Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.

 
3. Communication

Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication.

Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others.

Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others.

Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.

 
4. Connections

Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas.

Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.

Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

 
5. Representation

Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems.

Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.


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LANGUAGE ARTS
 
Grades K - 12
4: Communication Skills

Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

 
5: Communication Strategies

Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes.

 
7: Evaluating Data

Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.

 
11: Participating in Society

Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities.

 
12: Applying Language Skills

Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).


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SOCIAL STUDIES

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TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY
 
Grades K-12
6: Technology Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Tools

Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions.

Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world.


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