Investigation 25
Observational Studies
Synopsis: This investigation is divided into two parts. In Part 1, students work in Epi Teams to select their own hypotheses and design and conduct an inclass observational study. Students create questions that will allow them to count and classify their "exposure" and "outcome,"
assure that participants have given their informed consent, collect data,
display data in a 2x2 table, calculate risks and a relative risk, and
make inferences. In Part 2, each Epi Team presents their study results
to the class, according to the IMRAD format (Introduction, Methods, Results,
and Discussion). 
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Note: Click on one of the seven fields below to move to the standards of that discipline.
Science  Health  Mathematics  Language Arts  Social Studies  Technology 
SCIENCE  
Unifying Concepts and Processes K12  
Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards. 

As a result of activities in grades K  12, all students should develop:  
1: Science as Inquiry  
Inquiry requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop an understanding of scientific concepts, an appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science, an understanding of the nature of science, the skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world, and the dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science. 

5: Science and Technology  
The science and technology standards establish connections between the natural and designed worlds and provide students with opportunities to develop decisionmaking abilities. They are not standards for technology education, rather, these standards emphasize abilities associated with the process of design and fundamental understandings about the enterprise of science and its various linkages with technology. 

6: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives  
An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decisionmaking skills. 
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HEALTH  
By the end of Grade 8, students will:  
1: Health Promotion and Disease Prevention  
Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention. 

4: Influences on Health  
Students will analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health. 

7: Health Advocacy  
Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health. 
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MATHEMATICS  
In grades 68, all students should:  
1. Numbers and Operations  
Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. 

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another. 

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. 

2. Algebra  
Understand patterns, relations, and functions. 

Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols. 

Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships. 

Analyze change in various contexts. 

4. Measurements  
Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement. 

Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements. 

5. Data Analysis and Probability  
Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data. 

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data. 

Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data. 

Understand and apply basic concepts of probability. 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to:  
1. Problem Solving  
Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving. 

Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts. 

Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems. 

Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving. 

2. Reasoning and Proof  
Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. 

Make and investigate mathematical conjectures. 

Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs. 

Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof. 

3. Communication  
Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication. 

Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others. 

Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others. 

Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely. 

4. Connections  
Recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas. 

Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole. 

Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics. 

5. Representation  
Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas. 

Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems. 

Use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena. 
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LANGUAGE ARTS  
Grades K  12  
4: Communication Skills  
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. 

5: Communication Strategies  
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. 

7: Evaluating Data  
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

11: Participating in Society  
Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities. 

12: Applying Language Skills  
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information). 
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SOCIAL STUDIES 
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TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY  
Grades K12  
6: Technology ProblemSolving and DecisionMaking Tools  
Students use technology resources for solving problems and making informed decisions. 

Students employ technology in the development of strategies for solving problems in the real world. 
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