Alignment with National Content Curriculum Standards


Investigation 3-2
Cause

Synopsis:  Students explore the first of several explanations for finding an association: causation.  Students envision how data would be distributed in a 2x2 table for the known causal association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.  Given that there are people who have smoked and not developed lung cancer (cell b) and there are people who have never smoked and developed lung cancer (cell c), students begin to appreciate what epidemiologists mean when they say that an exposure and an outcome are causally associated.

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Science Health Mathematics Language Arts Social Studies Technology


SCIENCE
 
Unifying Concepts and Processes K-12

Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards.

 
As a result of activities in grades K - 12, all students should develop:
1: Science as Inquiry

Inquiry requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop an understanding of scientific concepts, an appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science, an understanding of the nature of science, the skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world, and the dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science.

 
6: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decision-making skills.


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HEALTH
 
By the end of Grade 8, students will:
4: Influences on Health

Students will analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health.

 
7: Health Advocacy

Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.


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MATHEMATICS
 
In grades 6-8, all students should:
1. Numbers and Operations

Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.

 
5. Data Analysis and Probability

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data.

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.

Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.

Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.


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LANGUAGE ARTS
 
Grades K - 12
4: Communication Skills

Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

 
12: Applying Language Skills

Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).


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SOCIAL STUDIES

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TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY

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