Investigation 33
Chance
Synopsis: Students explore the second of five possible explanations for finding an association: chance. Students are given a deck of 100 cards, with 25 cards each labeled a, b, c, and d, representing the number of people in the population who would be in cells a, b, c, and d if a hypothesis were tested. Students mix the cards up in a paper bag, take a sample of 20 cards from the bag, count the number of a, b, c, and d cards, construct a 2x2 table, calculate the relative risk, and uncover how an association can be found by chance. 
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Note: Click on one of the seven fields below to move to the standards of that discipline.
Science  Health  Mathematics  Language Arts  Social Studies  Technology 
SCIENCE  
Unifying Concepts and Processes K12  
Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards. 

As a result of activities in grades K  12, all students should develop:  
1: Science as Inquiry  
Inquiry requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop an understanding of scientific concepts, an appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science, an understanding of the nature of science, the skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world, and the dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science. 

6: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives  
An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decisionmaking skills. 
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HEALTH  
By the end of Grade 8, students will:  
4: Influences on Health  
Students will analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health. 

7: Health Advocacy  
Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health. 
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MATHEMATICS  
In grades 68, all students should:  
1. Numbers and Operations  
Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. 

Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another. 

Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. 

5. Data Analysis and Probability  
Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data. 

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data. 

Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data. 

Understand and apply basic concepts of probability. 

Instructional programs from prekindergarten through grade 12 should enable all students to:  
1. Problem Solving  
Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving. 

Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts. 

Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems. 

Monitor and reflect on the process of mathematical problem solving. 

2. Reasoning and Proof  
Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics. 

Make and investigate mathematical conjectures. 

Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs. 

Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof. 

3. Communication  
Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication. 

Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others. 

Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others. 

Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely. 
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LANGUAGE ARTS  
Grades K  12  
4: Communication Skills  
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. 

7: Evaluating Data  
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience. 

11: Participating in Society  
Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities. 

12: Applying Language Skills  
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information). 
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SOCIAL STUDIES 
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TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY 
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