Alignment with National Content Curriculum Standards


Investigation 3-5
Reversed Time Order

Synopsis:  Students explore the fourth of five possible explanations for finding an association: reversed time order, in which the suspected outcome actually came before the exposure.  Students consider what the four basic epidemiologic study designs can tell them about the time order of an exposure and an outcome.  Students review the results of a cross-sectional study that found an association between playing violent video games and aggressive behavior.  They realize that, given the study design, it is possible that the association was found because aggressive people like to play violent video games, and not because playing violent video games causes aggressive behavior.  Students continue to learn that causation is only one explanation for finding an association between an exposure and an outcome; that because observational studies are flawed, other explanations must also be considered, including reversed time order.

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Science Health Mathematics Language Arts Social Studies Technology


SCIENCE
 
Unifying Concepts and Processes K-12

Conceptual and procedural schemes unify science disciplines and provide students with powerful ideas to help them understand the natural world. Because of the underlying principles embodied in this standard, the understandings and abilities described here are repeated in the other content standards.

 
As a result of activities in grades K - 12, all students should develop:
1: Science as Inquiry

Inquiry requires that students combine processes and scientific knowledge as they use scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. Engaging students in inquiry helps students develop an understanding of scientific concepts, an appreciation of "how we know" what we know in science, an understanding of the nature of science, the skills necessary to become independent inquirers about the natural world, and the dispositions to use the skills, abilities, and attitudes associated with science.

 
6: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

An important purpose of science education is to give students a means to understand and act on personal and social issues. The science in personal and social perspectives standards help students develop decision-making skills.


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HEALTH
 
By the end of Grade 8, students will:
4: Influences on Health

Students will analyze the influence of culture, media, technology, and other factors on health.

 
7: Health Advocacy

Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.

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MATHEMATICS

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LANGUAGE ARTS
 
Grades K - 12
1: Reading for Perspective

Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works.

 
4: Communication Skills

Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.

 
12: Applying Language Skills

Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).


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SOCIAL STUDIES

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TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY

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