Home Page

Contact Us

DETECTIVES IN THE CLASSROOM
 
Students
    Scientific Inquiry
    Scientific Literacy
    Enduring
    Understandings
    Attitudes Toward
    Science Inventory
    Knowledge of
    Epidemiology
 
 


Knowledge of Epidemiology

Directions: Please listen to each question carefully and fill in the circle on the answer sheet that is the best answer.

1.

A study was conducted to examine the relationship between acne and eating chocolate. Two hundred teenagers with acne were in one group and 200 similar teenagers without acne were in the other group. Each subject was asked questions about his/her chocolate eating habits. In the analysis, percentages of teenagers who ate chocolate were calculated for the group with acne and the group without acne. Which of the following study questions is best answered by this design?

 

a.

Does drinking chocolate milk cause acne?

 

b.

Is eating chocolate more common among teenagers with acne than those who don't have acne?

 

c.

Is eating chocolate decreasing among teenagers?

 

d.

Is there more acne among teenagers than in the past?

 

e.

Is acne more common among teenagers who eat candy?

2.

Which of the following describes the best plan to answer the study question: " Does playing violent video games cause violent behavior?"

 

a.

Study violent behavior in people who play violent video games.

 

b.

Study the use of violent video games in people who have violent behavior.

 

c.

Study changes in violent behavior from 1996-2002.

 

d.

Compare the amount of violent behavior in people who play violent video games to the amount of violent behavior in people who do not play violent video games.

 

e.

Study changes in the use of violent video games from 1996-2002.

3.

Which of the following tools could you use to collect, analyze, and interpret data in a scientific investigation of an exposure / disease relationship?

 

a.

Questionnaires

 

b.

2x2 tables

 

c.

Calculations of risks

 

d.

Calculations of relative risks

 

e.

All of the above

4.

Let us say that a new disease has been identified that produces a swelling of the lips and tongue. The cause of the new disease is not known. At this point, all the reported cases have occurred among lifeguards at pools and beaches, referees at athletic facilities, and traffic police. Given the distribution of the new disease, what do you predict is causing it?

 

a.

Soap

 

b.

Toothpaste

 

c.

Whistles

 

d.

Chlorinated water

 

e.

Automobile exhaust

5.

A study published in a scientific journal found that teenagers who had acne were three times more likely to be depressed than teenagers without acne. Which of the following may explain why this association was found?

 

a.

Acne causes depression.

 

b.

A medication used to treat acne might cause depression.

 

c.

There might not be an association between acne and depression; it might have been found due to chance.

 

d.

The researchers may have found their result because of bias in the way the study was done.

 

e.

All of the above


A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that carrying heavy backpacks causes back pain. 1,000 middle school students who did not have back pain were followed from January through June 2002. At the end of the study, among 100 students who carry heavy backpacks, 25 students developed back pain. Among the 900 students who did not carry heavy backpacks, 50 students developed back pain.

6.

How many students carried heavy backpacks and developed back pain?

 

a.

25

 

b.

50

 

c.

75

 

d.

100

 

e.

850

7.

How many students carried heavy backpacks and did not develop back pain?

 

a.

25

 

b.

50

 

c.

75

 

d.

100

 

e.

850

8.

How many students did not carry heavy backpacks and did not develop back pain?

 

a.

25

 

b.

50

 

c.

75

 

d.

100

 

e.

850

9.

Do the data support the hypothesis that carrying a heavy backpacks causes back pain?

 

a.

Yes

 

b.

No

 

c.

Cannot answer based on data given.


Town A has a population of 20,000 and Town B has a population of 40,000. In 2001 there were 240 cases of influenza in Town A and 360 cases in Town B.

10.

What is the rate of influenza in Town A?

 

a.

12 / 1000

 

b.

24 / 1000

 

c.

80 / 1000

 

d.

120 / 1000

 

e.

240 / 1000

11.

Is the rate of influenza higher in Town A or Town B?

 

a.

Town A

 

b.

Town B

 

c.

The rates of influenza in Town A and Town B are the same.

 

d.

Cannot answer based on data given.