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Death and Dying in Indian Religions


By Matthew Sayers, University of Texas at Austin

Bana, H.R. Dokhmenashini and Khurshed Nagirashni: Mode of Disposal of the Dead Body of a Parsi Zoroastrian. Bombay: Dadar Jashan Commitee and Baug-e-Iranshan Joint Publication. [GT 3276 D658]

Becker, Carl B. 1993. Breaking the Circle: Death and the Afterlife in Buddhism. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. [BQ 4530 B43]

Berger, Peter. 1967. The Sacred Canopy: Elements of a Sociological Theory of Religion. Garden City, New Jersey: Doubleday. [BL 60 B42]

Bilimoria, P. 1992. "The Jaina Ethic of Voluntary Death" Bioethics 6/4 331ff.

Bishop, Peter. 1993. "The Tibetan Book of the Dead: A Guidebook to Western Fantasy." In Dreams of Power: Tibetan Buddhism and the Western Imagination. [BQ 7610 B54]

Blackburn, Stuart H. 1985. "Death and Deification: Folk Cults in Hinduism." History of Religions 24, no. 3: 255-74.

Bloch, Maurice and Jonathan Parry. 1982. Death and the Regeneration of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [GN 486 D4]

Bodewitz, H. W. 1985. "Yama's Second Boon in the Katha Upanisad." Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde Sudasiens 29: 5-26. [DS 2 W54]

_____. 1986a. "Prana, Apana and other Pranas in Vedic Literature." Adyar Library Bulletin 50: 326-48. [BP 500 B7]

_____. 1986b. "The Cosmic, Cyclical Dying (parimara): Aitreya Brahmana 8.28 and Kausitaki Upanishad 2.11-12." In Sanskrit and World Culture, ed. W. Morgenroth, pp. 438-43. Schriften zur Geschichte und Kultur des alten Orients 18. Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

_____. 1996a "Redeath and its Relation to Rebirth and Release." Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik 20: 27-46. [DS 423 S8]

_____. 1996b. "The pancagnividya and the Pitryana/Devayana." Studies in Indology: Professor Mukunda Madhava Sharma Felicitation Volume, ed. A.A. Goswami and D. Chutia, pp. 51-57. [DS 423 S79 1996]

Bowker, John. 1991. The Meaning of Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [BL 504 B6]

Brown, W. Norman. "The Rigvedic Equivalent for Hell."

Carman, John B and Frederique Apffel Marglin, eds. 1985. Purity and Auspiciousness. Leiden: E.J. Brill. [BL 2015 S6 P87]

Chapple, Chris. 1993. "The Path of Nonresistant Death." In Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, edited by Chris Chapple. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 99-110. [HM 278 C465]

Chris Chapple, Article in Jain Spirit (Issue 24, 2005, pp. 80-82)

Clark-Deces, Isabelle. 2005. No One Cries for the Dead: Tamil Dirges, Rowdy Songs, and Graveyard Petitions. Berkeley: University of California Press. [GT 3276 A3 S683]

Coccari, D. "The Bir Babas of Banaras and the Deified Dead." In Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: essays on the guardians of popular Hinduism, edited by Alf Hiltebeitel. Albany : State University of New York Press, c1989. [BL 1216.2 C75]

Collins, John J. and Michael Fishbane, eds. 1995. Death, Ecstasy, and Other Worldy Journeys. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Cormack, Margaret, ed. 2002. Sacrificing the Self: Perspectives on Martydom and Religion. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [BL 626.5 S23]

Coward, Howard G, Julius J. Lipner, and Katherine K. Young, eds. 1989. Hindu Ethics: Purity, Abortion, and Euthanasia,. Albany: State University of New York Press. [BJ 122 C7]

Coward, Harold, ed. 1997. Life after Death in World Religions. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. [BL535 L544]

Cuevas, Bryan J. "Speculations on the Development of the Intermediate-State Doctrine in Tibet."

Haarh, Erik. "Death and Burial of the bTsan-po, the Tibetan King." In The Yar-Lun Dynasty

Cuevas, Bryan J. "Notes for a History of the Tibetan Book of the Dead."

Cuevas, Bryan Jare. 1996. "Predecessors and Prototypes: Towards a Conceptual History of the Buddhist Antarabhava." Numen, Vol. 43, No. 3. (Sep., 1996), pp. 263-302.

Douglas, Mary. 1966. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. New York: Praeger. [GN 494 D6]

Dundas, Paul "Food and Freedom: The Jaina Sectarian Debate on the Nature of the Kevalin"

Eliade, Mircea. 1974. Death, Afterlife, and Eschatology. New York: Harper and Row.

Encyclopedia of Religion--"Mortification"; "Funeral Rites"; "Relics" [BL 31 E46]

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics-"Death and Disposal of the Dead" [BL 31 E4]

Epstein, Lawrence. 1982. "On the History and Psychology of the 'Das-log." Tibetan Journal Vol. VII (4), 20-85.

Ewing, A.H. 1901. "The Hindu Conception of the Functions of the Breath." JOAS 22: 251-308.

Filippi, Gian Giuseppe. 1996. Mrtyu: Concept of Death in Indian Traditions: Transformations of the Body and Funeral Rites. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld. [BL 1214.72 F55]

Filliozet, Pierre. 1989. "The After-death Destiny of the Hero According to the Mahabarata." In Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism. Alf Hiltebeitel, ed. Albany: State University of New York Press. [BL 1216.2 C75]

Fischer, Eberhard and Haku Shah. 1973. Vetra ne Khambha-Memorials for the Dead. Ahmedabad: Gujarat Vidyapith. [GT 3276 A3 G843]

Freed, Ruth S., and Stanley A. Freed. 1993. Ghosts: Life and Death in North India, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 72. Seattle: University of Washington Press. [GN 2 A27 V.72]

Freemantle, Francesca. 2001. Luminous Emptiness: Understanding the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Boston: Shambhala. [BQ 4490 K3713]

Garces-Foley, Kathleen, ed. 2005. Death and Religion in a Changing World. Armonk, N.Y.: ME Sharpe.

Garudapuranam, ed. Ram Shankar Bhattacharya. English [491.2 c459 v.67]

Germano, David. "Dying, Death, and Other Opportunities." In Religions of Tibet in Practice, edited by Donald S. Lopez. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [BQ 7620 R45]

Gold, Ann Grodzins. Fruitful Journeys: The Ways of Rajasthani Pilgrims. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1988. [BL 2016 G48 G65]

Gombrich, Richard. 1971. Precept and Practice. Oxford: Clarendon Press. [BL 1480 G6]

Gombrich, R. "'Merit Transference' in Sinhalese Buddhism" History of Religions 11 (1971) 203-219

Goss, Robert E. and Dennis Klass. 2005. Dead but Not Lost: Grief Narratives in Religious Traditions. New York: Alta Mira Press. [BL 504 L58]

Holt, J. 1981. "Assisting the Dead by Venerating the Living" Numen 28 1-28.

Humphreys S.C and Helen King. 1981. Mortality and Immortality: The Anthropology and Archaeology of Death. London: Academic Press. [GN 485.5 R47]

Huntington, Richard and Peter Metcalf. 1991. Celebrations of Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [GN 486 H84]

Jarow, E.H. Rick. 2003. Tales for the Dying: The Death Narrative of the Bhagavata-Purana. Albany: State University of New York Press. [BL 1140.4 B437]

Justice, Christopher. 1997. Dying the Good Death: The Pilgrimage to Die in India's Holy City. Albany: State University of New York Press. [BL 1214.72 J87]

Kane, P.V. History of Dharmasastra . Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. [294.5 K131H]

Kapleau, Philip. 1971. The Wheel of Death: A Collection of Writings from Zen Buddhist and Other Sources on Death, Rebirth, Dying. New York: Harper. [BD 444 K33]

Kapp, Dieter B. 1982. "The Concept of Yama in the Religion of a South Indian Tribe." Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 102, No. 3. (Jul. - Oct., 1982), pp. 517-521.

Karmay, Stanley. "The Soul and the Turquoise: a Ritual for Recalling the bla." In The Arrow and the Spindle: Studies in History, Myths, Rituals and Beliefs in Tibet. Kathmandu: Mandala Book Point. [DS 785 K245]

Kelting, W. "Sallekhana: Food Purity and the Sacrifice of the Body" (LO)

Knipe, David. "Night of the Growing Dead." In Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees Devotees: essays on the guardians of popular Hinduism, edited by Alf Hiltebeitel. Albany : State University of New York Press, c1989

Knipe, David. "Sapindikarana: The Hindu Rite of Entry into Heaven." In Religious Encounters with Death: Insights from the History and Anthropology of Religions, ed. Frank E. Reynolds and Earle H. Waugh, 111-124. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977. [BL 504 R44 1977]

Kramer, Kenneth Paul. 1988. The Sacred Art of Dying: How World Religions Understand Death. New York: Paulist Press. [BL 504 K73]

Krishnamoorthy, K. 1989. "Hero: Death: Commemoration, as Reflected in Sanskrit Literature-A Study." In Criminal Gods and Demon Devotees: Essays on the Guardians of Popular Hinduism. Alf Hiltebeitel, ed. Albany: State University of New York Press. [BL 1216.2 C75]

Kritzer, Robert. "Semen, Blood, and the Intermediate Existence."

Laidlaw, James. 1995. Riches and Renunciation: Religion, Economy, and Society among the Jains. Oxford Studies in Social and Cultural Anthropology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. [BL 1325.9 J34 L35]

Lamb, Sarah. 1997. "The Making and Unmaking of Persons: Notes on Aging and Gender in North India" Ethos, Vol. 25, No. 3. (Sep., 1997), pp. 279-302.

Lincoln, Bruce. 1991. Death, War, and Sacrifice: Studies in Ideology and Practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [BL 660 L44]

Ling, T.O. 1962. Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil: A Study in Theravada Buddhism. London: Allen and Unwin. [294.31 L646B]

Lopez, Donald Jr. "Chapter Two: The Book" In Prisoners of Shangri-la. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [BQ 7604 L66]

Marriot, McKim. India Through Hindu Catagories, Newbury Park: SAGE Publications, 1990. [DS 423 I496]

McMullen, Clarence O., ed. 1983. The Problem of Death & Suffering in Indian Religions. Delhi: Lithouse Publications. [BL 504 P76]

Miner, Horace. "Body Ritual among the Nacirema," American Anthropologist 58 (1956): 503-507.

Nicholas, Ralph W. "Sraddha, Impurity, and relations between the living and the dead."

Obayashi, Hiroshi, ed. 1992. Death and Afterlife: Perspectives on World Religions. New York: Greenwood Press.

O'Flaherty, Wendy Doniger, ed. 1980. Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. Berkeley: University of California Press. [BL 2015 K3 K37]

Parry, J. P. "Death and Cosmogony in Kashi"

Parry, J. "Ghosts, Greed and Sin: The Occupational Identity of the Benaras Funeral Priests."

Parry, Jonathan. 1982. "Sacrificial Death and the Necrophagous Ascetic." In Death and the Regeneration of Life, edited by Maurice Bloch and Jonathan Parry, 74-110. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reprint, 1999.

_____. 1985. "Death and Digestion: The Symbolism of Food and Eating in North Indian Mortuary Rites." Man: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, n.s. 20, no. 4: 612-30.

---. 1989a. "The End of the Body." In Fragments for a History of the Human Body, Part Two, edited by Michel Feher, Ramona Naddaff and Nadia Tazi, 490-517. New York: Zone Books.

_____. 1989b. "The End of the Body." In Fragments for a History of the Human Body Part 2. Edited by Michel Feher with Ramona Naddaff and Nadia Tazi. New York: Zone. [B 105 B64 F72]

---. 1994. Death in Banaras. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pinault, David. 2001. The Horse of Karbala: Muslim Devotional Life in India. New York: Palgrave. [BP 192.7 I4 P559]

Pommaret, Francoise. "Returning from Hell"

Rangdrol, Tsele Natsok. 1987. The Mirror of Mindfulness. Hong Kong: Rangyung Yeshe Publications. [BQ 4490 S613]

Ray, Reginald. 1994. Buddhist Saints in India. New York: Oxford University Press. [BQ 4285 R39]

Reynolds, Frank E. and Earle H. Waugh, eds. 1973. Religious Encounters with Death: Insights from the History and Anthropology of Religions. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press. [BL 504 R44]

Rinbochay, Lati and Jeffery Hopkins. 1979. Death, Intermediate States and Rebirth in Tibetan Buddhism. Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications.

Rhys Davids, T. W. ? "The Theory of the 'Soul' in the Upanishads"

Robben, Antonius C.G.M., ed. 2004. Death, Mourning, and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.[GN 486 D43]

Schopen, G. 1976. Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on the Archeology, Epigraphy, and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. [BQ6160 I4 S36

_____. 1976. "On the Buddha and His Bones: The Conception of a Relic in the Inscriptions from Nagarjunikonda." In Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks: Collected Papers on the Archeology, Epigraphy, and Texts of Monastic Buddhism in India. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 148-164.

_____. 1987. "Burial Ad Sanctos and the Physical Presence of the Buddha in Early Indian Buddhism" Religion 17: 193-225.

_____. 1991. "An Old Inscription from Amaravati and the Cult of the Local Monastic Dead in Indian Buddhist Monasteries." JIABS 14/2 281-329.

_____. 1992. "Monks and the Relic Cult in the Mahaparinibbanasutta: An Old Misunderstanding in Regard to Monastic Buddhism." In From Benares to Beijing: Essays on Buddhism and Chinese Religion in Honour of Prof. Jan Yun-Hua, ed. K. Shinohara & G. Schopen Oakville: Mosaic Press. [BQ 632 F76 1991]

_____. 1992. "On Avoiding Ghosts and Social Censure: Monastic Funerals in the Mulasarvastivada-vinaya." Journal of Indian Philosophy 20: 1-39.

_____. 1994. "Ritual Rights and Bones of Contention: More on Monastic Funerals and Relics in the Mulasarvastivada-vinaya." Journal of Indian Philosophy 22: 1-80.

_____. 1994. "Stupa and Tirtha: Tibetan Mortuary Practices and an Unrecognized Form of Burial Ad Sanctos at Buddhist Sites in India.." In The Buddhist Forum Volume III Seminar Papers 1991-1993. New Delhi: Heritage, 273-293.

_____. 1995. "Deaths, Funerals, and the Division of Property in a Monastic Code." In Buddhism in Practice, ed. D. S. Lopez, Princeton: Princeton University Press. [BQ 1012 B83 1995]

_____. 1996. "The Suppression of Nuns and the Ritual Murder of their Special Dead in Two Buddhist Monastic Texts." Journal of Indian Philosophy 24: 563-92.

_____. 2004. "What's in a Name: The Religious Function of the Early Donative Inscriptions." In Buddhist Monks and Business Matters: Still More Papers on Monastic Buddhism in India. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 382-394.

Settar, S. 1989. Inviting Death: Indian Attitude Towards the Ritual Death, Monographs and Theoretical Studies in Sociology and Anthropology in Honour of Nels Anderson, Publication 28. Leiden ; New York: Brill.

Settar, S. & Sontheimer, G. D. Memorial Stones. Dharwar & Heidelberg: Karnataka University & Heidelberg University, 1982.

Sharma, U. 1973. "Theodicy and the Doctrine of Karma" Man 8: 347-64

Shastri, Dakshina Ranjan. 1963. Origin and Development of the Rituals of Ancestor Worship in India. Calcutta: Bookland Private Limited.[294.5 SH240]

Smith, Jane and Yvonne Haddad. 2002. The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection. New York: Oxford.

Spiro, Howard M., Mary G. McCrea Curnen, and Lee Palmer Wandel, eds. 1996. Facing Death: Where Culture, Religion and Medicine Meet. New Haven: Yale University Press.[R726.8 F33]

Thapar, Romila. "Death & the Hero." In Mortality & Immortality: The Anthropology & Archaeology of Death, ed. Humphrey, S. C. & King, Helen. London: Academic Press, 1981.

Tilak, Shrinivas. Religion and Aging in the Indian Tradition, by Shrinivas Tilak (Foreword by Katherine K. Young), SUNY. [HQ 1064 I4 T55

Trawick, M. 1992 "Death and Nurturance in Indian Systems of Healing" in Paths to Asian Medical Knowledge. Edited by Charles Leslie and Allan Young. Berkeley: University of California Press. [R 581 P38]

Walsh, M. Buddhism and Death [BQ4487 W34x ??]

Wayman, Alex. "The Intermediate State Dispute in Buddhism." In Buddhist Studies in Honor of I. B. Horner. Edited by I. Cousins, A. Kunst, and K.R. Norman. 227-239. [BQ 4055 B853]

Werbner, Pnina, and Helene Basu, eds. 1998. Embodying Charisma: Modernity, Locality, and Performance of Emotion in Sufi Cults. London: New York. [BP 189.23 E45]

Wilson, Liz. 2003. The Living and the Dead: the Social Dimensions of Death in South Asian Religions. Albany: State University of New York Press. [BL504 L58]

Wilson, Liz. 1996. Charming Cadavers: Horrific Figurations of the Feminine in Indian Buddhist Hagiographic Literature. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. [BQ 4570 W6 W55]

Wylie, Turell. 1964. "Ro-langs: The Tibetan Zombie" ? Vol. 4 (1), 69-80.



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Revised: February 15, 2006