A large variety of citation management tools are available to help you record and cite your research sources. If you are interested in a comprehensive listing of reference management software, Wikipedia offers a detailed page on this subject. The first part of this section below provides resource links for free online citation tools as well as citation tools built into commonly used software.
Following the links to citation tools, you'll find links to resources for the most common types of citation styles.
- Citation Tutorial (Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library)
Introducation and citation overview as well as tutorials for APA, MLA, Chicago, and CSE/CBE Styles
- Citation and Documentation Exercises (companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
See the "Research Exercises" section. These exercises include a group of exercises on formatting for college papers according to APA, MLA, and CMS guidelines. To access these exercises, you need to register with the site. Registration is fast and simple, you just need to provide your name, and create a password.
- Documenting sources for research in the Humanities, Social Sciences, History, and Sciences(Hacker and Fister Research and Documentation Online)
See the "Documenting Sources" link for each of these categories.
- Find Help with Citing Sources (Re:Writing from Bedford/St. Martin's)
Models for MLA, APA, Chicago, and CSE
- List of Style Manuals by discipline (Hacker and Fister Research and Documentation Online)
- Scholarly and Professional Style Manuals (University of No. Texas Libraries)
List of resources for various style manuals, including AAA, ACS, AMA, APA, APSA, ASA, CBE/CSE, Chicago/Turabian, and Harvard Reference System.
An open source tool for Macs for editing and managing a bibliography. The tool helps keep track of bibliographic information, associated files, and web links.
A web service that assists in formatting citations in MLA, APA and Chicago through the use of simple forms.
- Connotea (Nature Publishing Group)
"Free online reference management service for all researchers, clinicians, and scientists."
- Endnote ... Bibliographies Made Easy
Endnote Software page to access tutorials, webinars, free trials, or purchase
- Making a Bibliography using Microsoft Word 2007
This is a YouTube video (Posted on YouTube: December 11, 2007 | length 2:01) that shows how to use the bibliography feature on Microsoft Word 2007
- Zotero (Center for History and New Media, George Mason University)
"A free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, and cite your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself. "
AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION (APSA) STYLE
- APSA (American Political Science Association) (University of Wisconsin - Madison Writing Center)
A guide to using the APSA style. This is part of the UW-Madison Writing Center's online Writer's Handbook.
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) STYLE
APA citation style was developed by the American Psychological Association and is used in the social sciences. The distinguishing characteristics of this citation style is that the publication date is placed immediately after the author's name, initials are used for the author's first name, and the title can be in lower case.
- An Introduction to APA Documentation (Nancy Linh Karls, Mike Shapiro and Brad Hughes of UW-Madison Writing Center)
Posted online: 2-20-09 | length 4:47
"If you need an introduction to the American Psychological Association's documentation system, which is widely used in the social sciences, this five-minute podcast (with images) will give a quick orientation to the basics of citing sources within your paper and creating a reference list."
APA Citation Format With Microsoft Word '07 - Research & Term Paper Part 1, Part 2, & Part 3 (David Taylor, Professor of Writing, UMUC aka peakdavid)
Posted on YouTube: October 26, 2008
A straightforward and no frills examination of APA style in three short videos. Part 1 addresses the basic elements of APA style as well as why to use these guidelines. Part 2 explains how to set up a Microsoft Word '07 for APA style. And Part 3 focuses on in-text citations and the corresponding list of references
APA Exposed: Everything You Always Wanted to Know about APA Format but Were Afraid to Ask (Wendy K Mages, Ed.D., Harvard Graduate School of Education)
An online tutorial using PowerPoint slides and voice over that explores proper use of APA formatting style. The tutorial is friendly and accessible and developed by a professor who wanted to help her students feel comfortable using APA in their writing and research.
APA Style – Carla Clark (Clarla Clark, Medical Center Campus Library, Miami Dade College)
Posted on iTunes U: June 18, 2009
A series of basic video podcasts (PowerPoint slides with voice over) that address one specific question of APA style use per episode. Here is a list of some of the topics covered:
- FAQ about APA – No Author (1:34)
- FAQ about APA – No Date (2:19)
- FAQ about APA – PowerPoint Presentations (1:32)
- FAQ about APA – Citation Builders (1:56)
- Using APA Style for Academic Writing and Avoiding Plagiarism (19:46)
- APA Style Guide (Purdue OWL)
"This resource, revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page."
- APA Style Guide for Electronic Resources (Official APA Style web site)
Because electronic sources are constantly changing and evolving, the APA Style web site posts pages from its publication APA Style Guide to Electronic References (© 2007). The two main topics covered are Electronic media and URLs and Citations in text of electronic material. The site also includes an Electronic Media Spelling Guide
- APA Style in Brief (Sprague Library, Montclair State University)
A downloadable PDF handout that gives examples of proper APA Style formatting for books, works in anthology, scholarly journal articles, articles with two or three authors, magazine and newspapers, articles online and web sites.
- APA Style: The Social Sciences (the companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
Click "Social Sciences" on the main page for explanations and examples of APA style for in-text citations, list of references and manuscript format.
- Cite Resources: American Psychological Association (APA) (The Ohio State University University Libraries)
A well designed and up-to-date how-to guide on MLA style with resources for citing electronic sources.
- Research Tutorial: Citing Your Sources in APA Style (Eastern Washington University Library)
*Requires Flash. A Flash tutorial that walks the user through APA Style. The tutorial begins by asking the user whether you want the APA or MLA version. After a brief explanation of the style's characteristics, the tutorial asks the user to demonstrate their ability at using the style through some drag and drop activities. It also addresses electronic resources and issues related to finding the source online.
- ASA Format (Cal State Library)
- Formatting in Sociology(Purdue OWL)
A guide to formating citations using ASA style guide.
This style was developed by the University of Chicago Press in 1906 and is widely used in the humanities and social sciences. The distinguishing characteristics of this style is the use of footnotes or back-notes.
- Chicago Manual of Style Online (University of Chicago Press)
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is one of the standard styles of the publishing world. In 2006 CMS produced an online version with a yearly subscription fee of $30 per year. A reduced rate is offered for groups. The site does include some noteworthy free services. The Quick Guide section offers an overview of the Chicago Manual of Style and includes electronic source examples.
- Chicago Style: History (the companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
Click "History" on the main page for examples of bibliographic, in-text and footnote entries of Chicago Style used in the field of History.
- Citation Guide – Chicago Manual of Style (The University of Arizona Library)
Easy to read and navigate examples of bibliographic entries using the Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition).
- Cite Resources: Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide (Ohio State University University Libraries)
A well designed and up-to-date how-to guide on Chicago Manual of Style with resources for citing electronic sources.
- CMS Video (YouTube, Karelia Stetz-Waters, Linn Benton Community College)
Posted on YouTube: April 2, 2009 | length 5:02
A no frills PowerPoint with voice over that goes over how to use Chicago Manual of Style in the humanities.
This style is from the Council of Science Editors, formerly known as the Council of Biology Editors. It is the citation style used in publications in the hard sciences.
- Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style Guide (The Ohio State University, University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on CSE style with resources for citing electronic sources.
- Writing Guides, Style Manuals and the Publication Process in the Biological and Health Sciences (University of Minnesota Libraries)
A collection of links to writing guides, style manuals, and other resources for writing in the biological and health sciences.
MLA (Modern Language Association) is the citation style used in the liberal arts and humanities.
- An Introduction to MLA Documentation (Nancy Linh Karls, Mike Shapiro and Brad Hughes of UW-Madison Writing Center)
Posted online: June 9, 2008 | length 3:40
"This short podcast (with images) will help you get the basics of MLA documentation, and will be especially useful to students in introductory literature classes."
- Cite Resources: Modern Language Association (MLA) (The Ohio State University University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on MLA style with resources for citing electronic sources.
- MLA Citation Format - Put Your Papers & Essays in Perfect MLA Style: P1 (David Taylor, Professor of Writing, UMUC aka peakdavid)
Posted on YouTube: October 27, 2008 | length 5:26
"MLA manuscript settings for a research paper in Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Also covers in-text citation formatting style (when, where and how to cite) and the Works Cited page."
- MLA Documentation (Martine Courant, Writing Professor at Lansing Community College in Lansing, Michigan)
Posted on YouTube: January 29, 2008 | length 8:15
A thorough and well thought out PowerPoint presentation with voice over that walks you thought how to use MLA formatting, how to integrate sources into your writing and how to put together a works cited page.
- MLA Style: English and Other Humanities (the companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
Click "Humanities" on this page for explanations and examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using MLA in English and other humanities.
- MLA Style Guide (Purdue OWL)
"This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page."
- MLA Style in Brief (Sprague Library, Montclair State University)
A downloadable pdf handout that gives examples of proper MLA Style formatting for books, scholarly journal articles, articles from a magazine and newspapers, articles online and web sites
- Research Tutorial: Citing Your Sources in MLA Style (Eastern Washington University Library)
*Requires Flash. A Flash tutorial that walks the user through MLA Style. The tutorial begins by asking the user whether you want the APA or MLA version. After a brief explanation of the style's characteristics, the tutorial asks users to demonstrate their ability at using the style through some drag and drop activities. It also addresses electronic resources and issues related to finding the source online.
- Setting Your Essay to MLA format in Word 2007 (YouTube - Jeff Heidel)
Posted on YouTube: January 2, 2008 | length 5:46
A student-produced video by Jeff Heidel from Mount Si High School in North Bend, Washington on how to use Microsoft Word 2007 to format a paper in MLA.