Electronic Citation

Guides and References

Electronic Citation

Citations allow the reader to retrace an author's research. Therefore citations, electronic as well as other kinds, should be as complete as possible. Completeness in electronic citation means including the complete address of the site, the date the page was loaded or refreshed by the webmaster, and the date you viewed it. In addition, you should download or print (or both!) the home page and location you are citing as documentation, in case you are asked to show it later.

Since the Internet has changed the way information is made available, new forms of citation are needed. The following is a guide to help. The most common method of searching the Internet is by a browser (Netscape, Explorer, etc.). In Sprague Library, online sources also include full-text articles retrieved from such sources as SearchBank and EbscoHost.

Further information can be obtained from the sources listed at the end of this sheet. As always, your professor has the final word on citation form and should be consulted for the preferred form of citation.

WEB PAGE INFORMATION (Netscape, Microsoft Explorer)

Generic Format

Author (if known). "Full title of work." Title of complete work or home page. Date document was loaded or updated (if known). Full URL (http:// etc.) (date of visit)

Example

Conference Board. "Composite Indexes of Leading, Coincident, and Lagging Indicators: April 1998," Leading Economic Indicators & Related Composite

Indexes. June 2, 1998 <http://www.conference-board.org/products/frames .cfm?main=lei1.cfm> (June 29, 1998)

APA Format

Author (if known). (Date document loaded or updated: year, month day). Title of information [Explanation of page]. Site of web page (if known): Author (if known). Retrieved date from the World Wide Web: URL

Example

American Psychological Association. (1995, September 15). APA public policy action alert: Legislation would affect grant recipients [Announcement posted on the World Wide Web]. Washington, D.C.: John Smith. Retrieved January 25, 1996 from the World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/ppo/istook.html

MLA Format

Title of project or database. Name of author or editor, if given. Version number, if relevant. Date of electronic publication. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access. Electronic address.

Example

Charrette Project. Ed. Karl D. Uitti. 1994. Dept. of Romance Langs., Princeton U. 7 Feb. 1997 <http://www.princeton.edu/~lancelot/>.

 

PERIODICAL ARTICLES ONLINE (SearchBank, EbscoHost)

Generic Format

Author's Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Periodical Title, volume, issue and date. Date work was loaded or updated (if known). <Name of Online Service> Date of access.

Example

Merline, John. "How deadly is air pollution?" Consumers' Research Magazine, v.80, n. 2 Feb. 1997 <SearchBank> June 30, 1998

APA Format

Author's Lastname, Initials. (date of publication). Title of the Article. Periodical Title. [On-line]. Available: Name of Service.

Example

Punshon, T. P. (1998, June). The vital reassessment. Journal of revision. [On-line]. Available: SearchBank.

MLA Format

Author's Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical. Volume, Issue. Document date. Title of Database. Online. Name of computer network. Date of access.

Example

Burk, Leigh. "Reinventing New Jersey." New Jersey Sociology Journal. Vol. 59, no. 3. June 1998. Searchbank. Online. 30 June 1998.

 

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

American Psychological Association. How to cite information from the Internet and the World Wide Web. <http://www.apa.org/journals/webref.html> June 30, 1998.

Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA style manual and guide to scholarly publishing. 2nd ed. New York: MLA, 1998.

Modern Language Association. MLA Style. c.1998. <http://www.mla.org/main_stl.htm> June 30, 1998

Walker, Janice. Columbia online style: APA-style citations of electronic sources. (rev. Dec. 1996) Vers. 1.0 <http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html> June 18, 1998

_____. Columbia online style: MLA-style citations of electronic sources. (Nov. 1997) Vers. 1.2 <http://www.columbia.edu/cu/cup/cgos/idx_basic.html> June 30, 1998

 

Summer 1998

Anita Daniel