Mathematics Major, Discrete Applied Mathematics Concentration (B.S.)  Undergraduate  2015 University Catalog
DISCRETE APPLIED MATH CONCENTRATION
Complete 63 semester hours including the following 4 requirement(s):

MATHEMATICS CORE
Complete the following 5 courses:
MATH 122 Calculus I (4 hours lecture) 4 MATH 221 Calculus II (4 hours lecture) 4 MATH 222 Calculus III (4 hours lecture) 4 MATH 335 Linear Algebra (4 hours lecture) 4 MATH 340 Probability (3 hours lecture) 3 
DISCRETE APPLIED MATH CONCENTRATION
Complete the following 5 courses:
MATH 320 Transitions to Advanced Mathematics (3 hours lecture) 3 MATH 464 Operations Research I (3 hours lecture) 3 MATH 465 Operations Research II (3 hours lecture) 3 MATH 469 Mathematical Modeling (3 hours lecture) 3 MATH 485 Applied Combinatorics and Graph Theory (3 hours lecture) 3 
MATHEMATICS ELECTIVES
Complete 15 semester hours from the following:

COLLATERAL REQUIREMENTS
Complete the following 2 requirements:

Complete the following 2 courses:
CSIT 111 Fundamentals of Programming I (3 hours lecture) 3 CSIT 112 Fundamentals of Programming II (3 hours lecture) 3 
Complete 1 of the following sequences:

Complete 2 courses:
PHYS 191 University Physics I (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab) 4 PHYS 192 University Physics II (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab) 4 
Complete 2 courses:
CHEM 120 General Chemistry I (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab) 4 CHEM 121 General Chemistry II (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab) 4 
Complete 2 courses:
BIOL 112 Principles of Biology I (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory) 4 BIOL 113 Principles of Biology II (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory) 4 
Complete 2 courses:
EAES 105 Physical Geology (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab) 4 EAES 240 Historical Geology (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab) 4 
Complete 3 courses:
ECON 101 Applied Macroeconomics (3 hours lecture) 3 ECON 102 Applied Microeconomics (3 hours lecture) 3 MGMT 231 Management Processes (3 hours lecture) 3 
Complete 3 courses:
ACCT 201 Fundamentals of Financial Accounting (3 hours lecture) 3 ACCT 202 Fundamentals of Managerial Accounting (3 hours lecture) 3 MGMT 231 Management Processes (3 hours lecture) 3


Course Descriptions:
ACCT201: Fundamentals of Financial Accounting (3 hours lecture)
This is an introductory course in financial accounting from a preparer perspective. The theoretical foundation and basic accounting terminology is addressed. The course will enable the students to perform the entire accounting cycle from analyzing basic accounting transactions to the preparation of the basic financial statements including the balance sheet, income statement, statement of stockholders' equity and statement of cash flows. The course will enable students to critically analyze accounting information. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: ENWR 105 or HONP 100. For Accounting Majors only except by permit from the Department Chair.
ACCT202: Fundamentals of Managerial Accounting (3 hours lecture)
The course covers the use of accounting information for internal planning, controlling and decision making. The course introduces basic concepts of management accounting including cost classifications, product costing, costvolumeprofit analysis, operational budgeting, standard setting and performance evaluation, decentralization, relevant costs and decision making. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: ACCT 201. For Accounting Majors only except by permit from the Department Chair.
BIOL112: Principles of Biology I (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory)
Principles of Biology I involves the study of life from molecule to multicellular organism with focus on structure and function of cells, mechanisms of heredity and change, and the ways in which these processes shape higher levels of biological organization. This course is designed to fulfill the first core course requirement of the biology major. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 100 with a grade of C or higher or a satisfactory score on the Math department's precalculus readiness test.
BIOL113: Principles of Biology II (3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory)
Principles of Biology II will provide an introductory level study of biodiversity and the origins of life, phylogenetic relationships among organisms, genetics, developmental biology, reproduction, the biology of populations and communities, and ecosystem processes. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 100 with a grade of C or higher or a satisfactory score on the Math department's precalculus readiness test.
CHEM120: General Chemistry I (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab)
Introductory lecture and laboratory course for science majors, prerequisite for all advanced chemistry courses. Introduction to atomic and molecular structure, bonding, stoichiometry, states of matter, solutions, and selected topics in descriptive inorganic chemistry. Laboratory stresses techniques and data treatment and their use in examining chemical systems. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: Satisfactory score on the Mathematics readiness test OR a grade of C or better in MATH 100 or MATH 111 or MATH 112 or MATH 116 or MATH 122 or MATH 221 or MATH 222 OR concurrent enrollment in MATH 100. Satisfactory score on the Chemistry readiness test OR a grade of C or better in CHEM 105 or CHEM 106.
CHEM121: General Chemistry II (3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab)
Introductory lecture and laboratory course for science majors, prerequisite for all advanced chemistry courses. Introduction to thermochemistry, kinetics; general acid base, precipitation, redox equilibria, electrochemistry and selected topics in descriptive inorganic chemistry. Laboratory stresses techniques and data treatment and their use in examining chemical systems. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: CHEM 120 with a grade of C or better.
CSIT111: Fundamentals of Programming I (3 hours lecture)
Basic theory of digital computers. Syntax and semantics of a programming language. Algorithms: logic, design, testing and documentation. Previous course CMPT 183 effective through Spring 2014. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 100. MATH 112 may be taken as a corequisite or prerequisite.
CSIT112: Fundamentals of Programming II (3 hours lecture)
Continuation of CSIT 111. Algorithm development involving user functions; subroutines, recursions, structures file manipulation. Previous course CMPT 184 effective through Spring 2014. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: CSIT 111, CSIT 104 and MATH 112.
EAES105: Physical Geology (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab)
Materials of the earth; landforms and structures; the processes and agents responsible for their formation and modification. Modern tectonic concepts. Topographic and geologic maps. Required field trips. Not open to students who have had Principles of Geology. Meets Gen Ed 2002  Natural/Physical Science Laboratory. Previous course GEOS 112 effective through Spring 2012. 4 sh.
EAES240: Historical Geology (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab)
Geological history of the earth; the evolution of North America in terms of the changing geography, climate, and plant and animal life as interpreted from the rock and fossil record. Required field trips. Meets Gen Ed 2002  Natural/Physical Science Laboratory. Previous course GEOS 114 effective through Spring 2012. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: EAES 101, EAES 105, EAES 107 or EAES 250.
ECON101: Applied Macroeconomics (3 hours lecture)
The course introduces undergraduate students to the macro economy of the United States of America. Students learn how to apply the mechanism needed for the achievement of an optimal allocation of resources, price stability, full employment level of national income and longterm growth. In addition, they learn to analyze the macroeconomic data and the implications of fiscal and monetary policies. Meets Gen Ed 2002 Requirements  Social Science. 3 sh.
ECON102: Applied Microeconomics (3 hours lecture)
In this course, undergraduate students will learn about the organization and operation of the American economy for the production and distribution of goods and services. Students learn the mechanism behind the pricing of products and factors of production in market situations varying from competition to monopoly. In addition, they learn to analyze microeconomic data and apply the abstract theoretical models into real life situations. Meets Gen Ed 2002 Requirements  Social Science. 3 sh.
MATH122: Calculus I (4 hours lecture)
Limits, continuity; derivative and differentiation; applications of the derivative, maxima, minima, and extreme considerations; antiderivatives; Riemann integral. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 111 or MATH 112 or placement through the Montclair State University Placement Test (MSUPT) or a satisfactory score on department's Calculus Readiness Test. (Students who did not satisfy the course prerequisite at MSU and students who received a grade of D, D, or D+ in the prerequisite course taken at MSU are required to demonstrate competency on the department's Calculus Readiness Test.)
MATH221: Calculus II (4 hours lecture)
Riemann integral applications, transcendental functions, techniques of integration, improper integrals, L'Hospital's rule, infinite series. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 122 with grade of C or better.
MATH222: Calculus III (4 hours lecture)
Vector algebra; partial differentiation, and extreme considerations; polar, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates, multiple integration; introduction to line integrals. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 221 with a grade of C or better.
MATH320: Transitions to Advanced Mathematics (3 hours lecture)
This course will help students explore mathematics and make conjectures using technology. Students will enhance their understanding of mathematical models and to develop communication skills through the use of written reports and oral presentations of projects. The course content introduces students to difference equations, elementary linear algebra and ordinary differential equations. Further, the course will develop proofwriting skills and introduce students to the exploreconjectureproof strategy. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 221 with a grade of C or better.
MATH323: Complex Variables (3 hours lecture)
This course is a study of the arithmetic and algebra of complex numbers, and an introduction to the differentiation and integration of complex functions. Topics include: rectangular and polar form of complex numbers, algebra of complex numbers, differentiation, CauchyRiemann equations, and contour integrals. Previous course MATH 423 effective through Spring 2014. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 222 with a grade of C or better.
MATH335: Linear Algebra (4 hours lecture)
The course content will cover the foundations of the algebra of vector spaces, matrix operations, matrix invertibility theorems, linear independence, span, basis, linear transformations, finite dimensional Hilbert Spaces, GramSchmidt process, projections, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and applications. The focus of the course will be to develop advanced mathematical skills in reading and understanding abstract mathematical definitions, constructing examples, and developing mathematical proofs. Meets the University Writing Requirement for majors in Mathematics. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 222 with a grade of C or better.
MATH340: Probability (3 hours lecture)
Chance and variability, elements of combinatorics, Bayes' theorem, random variables, binomial, poisson and normal distributions, applications to statistics. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 221 with a grade of C or better.
MATH360: Mathematical Modeling in Biology (3 hours lecture)
The course introduces students to the study of mathematical modeling in the biological and medical sciences. Continuous and discrete dynamical systems will be used to describe topics such as interacting and structured populations, biological control, population genetics and evolution, biological oscillators and switches, pattern formation, and the dynamics of infectious diseases. Each topic will be presented in its historical context, leading to questions of current research interest and providing a comprehensive overview of the field and a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research in the biological sciences. Emphasis is on applications and mathematical techniques for finding solutions. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 221 (or MATH 116 and BIOL 213 for Biology Majors).
MATH368: Fluid Mechanics (3 hours lecture)
Mechanics of continuous media, liquids and gases; stress, viscosity, NavierStokes and Euler Equations, exact solutions, potential flow, circulation and vorticity, dimensional analysis and asymptotic models, boundary layers, stability theory and applications to industrial environmental problems. Cross listed with PHYS 368. Previous course MATH 468 effective through Spring 2014. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 222 with a grade of C or better.
MATH370: Mathematics for Teaching (3 hours lecture)
This course will focus on the Common Core State Standards Mathematics (CCSSM) aligned with the content areas of number and quantity, prealgebra and algebra, and statistics and probability. These topics will be presented with the goal of fostering preservice mathematics teachers' (PSMT's) understanding of and commitment to teaching mathematics that promotes student understanding. PSMTs will explore mathematical content deeply while also discussing related pedagogical tools, including teaching methods, curricula, lesson planning, technology resources, and assessment practices. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 350 with a grade of C or better and admission into the Teacher Education program.
MATH398: Vector Calculus (3 hours lecture)
Topics include the algebra of the differential and integral calculus; gradients, divergence and curl of a vector field, and integral theorems together with applications drawn from the physical sciences. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH420: Ordinary Differential Equations (4 hours lecture)
A course in the theory and applications of ordinary differential equations which emphasizes qualitative aspects of the subject. Topics include analytic and numerical solution techniques for linear and nonlinear systems, graphical analysis, existenceuniqueness theory, bifurcation analysis, and advanced topics. Prerequisite: MATH 335. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH421: Partial Differential Equations (3 hours lecture)
Partial differential equations arise in the mathematical modeling of many physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. They play a crucial role in diverse subject areas, such as fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, material science, astrophysics, financial modeling, and hydrogeology, for example. This course is an introduction to partial differential equations with emphasis on the wave, diffusion and Laplace equations. The focus will be on understanding the physical meaning and mathematical properties of solutions of partial differential equations. Methods of solutions include separation of variables using orthogonal series, transform methods, method of characteristics, and some numerical methods. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 420 with a grade of C or better.
MATH425: Advanced Calculus I (3 hours lecture)
Properties of the real number system, limits, continuous functions, intermediate value theorem, derivative, mean value theorem, Riemann integral. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH426: Advanced Calculus II (3 hours lecture)
This course is a continuation of MATH 425. Topics include functions of several variables, partial derivatives, Green's theorem, Stoke's theorem, divergence theorem, implicit function theorem, inverse function theorem, infinite series and uniform convergence. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 425 with a grade of C or better.
MATH431: Foundations of Modern Algebra (3 hours lecture)
Fundamental concepts of algebra including groups, rings, integral domains and fields, with important examples. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH433: Theory of Numbers (3 hours lecture)
This course presents the principal ideas of classical elementary number theory, emphasizing the historical development of these results and the important figures who worked on them. Topics studied include the following: divisibility, primes, and the Euclidean Algorithm; numbertheoretic functions, linear congruencies, the Chinese Remainder Theorem, the Theorems of Fermat, Euler, and Wilson; quadratic congruencies and the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity; Diophantine equations and Fermat's Last Theorem; continued fractions; Pell's equation and the sum of two squares. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH450: Foundations of Geometry (3 hours lecture)
The course deals with the fundamental ideas common to Euclidean and NonEuclidean geometries; projective, affine, and metric geometries. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH451: Topology (3 hours lecture)
Point set topology including topics such as, metric spaces, limit points, derived sets, closure, continuity, compact sets and connected sets. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 425 with a grade of C or better.
MATH460: Introduction to Applied Mathematics (3 hours lecture)
This course is a survey of applied mathematical techniques, including such topics as control theory (feedback control systems, Nyquist and Popov plots, pole shifting, Laplace transforms) and classical boundary value problems (SturmLiouville equations with solution techniques involving Fourier series). Applications will use the theory of calculus of variations which includes the variational derivative, the general variation of a functional, variation in parametric form, and the invariance of the Euler's equations. Prerequisite: MATH 335. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 420 with a grade of C or better.
MATH463: Numerical Analysis (3 hours lecture)
Finite differences, approximation theory, linear and nonlinear equations, error analysis. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH464: Operations Research I (3 hours lecture)
Linear programming, transportation problem, assignment problem, duality, sensitivity analysis, network flows, dynamic programming, nonlinear programming, integer programming. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH465: Operations Research II (3 hours lecture)
Game theory, queuing models, inventory models, Markov processes, reliability theory and applications. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 and MATH 340 both with a grade of C or better.
MATH466: Mathematics of Finance I (3 hours lecture)
Mathematical theory of interest rates, annuities, bond valuation, stock valuation, options, arbitrage, binomial trees, putcall parity, Black Scholes Model, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and portfolio selection. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: FINC 321 and MATH 340 both with a grade of C or better.
MATH467: Mathematics of Finance II (3 hours lecture)
Mathematical theory of forward/futures contract, hedging with futures, fixed income market analysis, duration, immunization, financial swaps, interest swaps, currency swaps, future options, Black Scholes Model, putcall parity, binomial trees, other options, and volatility. This course can be used as part of preparation for SOA/CASACT Actuarial Examinations, Course 2. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 466 with a grade of C or better.
MATH469: Mathematical Modeling (3 hours lecture)
The art of constructing mathematical models for "real world" problems, solving the model, and testing the accuracy of the model. Problems will be selected from business, science, computer science, and the social sciences. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 420 and MATH 340; and MATH 464 or STAT 330 all with a grade of C or better.
MATH485: Applied Combinatorics and Graph Theory (3 hours lecture)
Problem solving by counting, enumeration, and graph theory. Permutation, combinations, binomial coefficients, generating functions, and recurrence relations, partitions, inclusionexclusion, Polya's formula, graph theoretic models, trees, circuits, networks, matching, and their applications to puzzles, games, tournaments, traffic patterns, transportation. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 340 with a grade of C or better.
MATH487: Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography (3 hours lecture)
A modern introduction to the application of number theory, combinatorics and abstract algebra to cryptography. Specifically, this includes modular arithmetic, generating polynomials and matrix algebra over rings and fields. A discussion of a broad range of applications of mathematics to the security of credit cards, cell phones and codes among numerous other current examples will be covered. Current industry protocols will be explored. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better.
MATH490: Honors Seminar (3 hours seminar)
This course will concentrate on subject matter not usually covered within standard mathematics courses. A written and oral report are required. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better; and departmental approval.
MATH491: Research in Mathematics Education (3 hours seminar)
Research in Mathematics Education Research in an area of mathematics education agreed upon by the student and the instructor. The results of the research will be the basis of a seminar, colloquium, or conference presentation to be given by the student. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits with either a new research topic or continued research on the current topic. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 350 and departmental approval.
MATH495: Topics for Undergraduates (1 hour lecture)
Study of advanced topics in undergraduate mathematics. May be repeated for a maximum of 6.0 credits as long as the topic is different. 1  3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 and MATH 340 both with a grade of C or better; and departmental approval.
MATH497: Mathematics Research I
Individual research in a mathematical area agreed upon by the student and the instructor. The results of the research will be a basis of a seminar or colloquium to be given by the student. Students must not accumulate more than 6 credits total in courses MATH 497, 498. 1  3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better; and departmental approval.
MATH498: Mathematics Research II
Individual research in a mathematical area agreed upon by the student and the instructor. The results of the research will be a basis of a seminar or colloquium to be given by the student. Students must not accumulate more than 6 credits total in courses MATH 497, 498. 1  3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 335 with a grade of C or better; and departmental approval.
MGMT231: Management Processes (3 hours lecture)
To provide undergraduate students a review of classical and modern approaches to the managerial process as it relates to the manager's functions of planning, organizing, communication, motivation, leading, controlling, and managing change. Emphasizing new forces in the managerial environment such as workplace diversity and economic globalization, these reviews will be tied to the opensystem model and the contingency approach as overall frameworks for understanding organizations and management. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: ENWR 105 or HONP 100.
PHYS191: University Physics I (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab)
This onesemester calculusbased course including laboratory is a study of the principles of physics and some applications to society's problems. Topics covered include mechanics, thermodynamics, fluids, and harmonic motion. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 122 is prerequisite or corequisite.
PHYS192: University Physics II (3 hours lecture, 2 hours lab)
Calculusbased course. Study of some principles of physics and some applications to society's problems. Topics include: wave motion, sound and noise pollution, optics, electricity, lasers, nuclear theory, radiation, nuclear reactors, waste disposal. 4 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 221 is prerequisite or corequisite.
STAT330: Fundamentals of Modern Statistics I (3 hours lecture)
Displaying, describing and modeling data; arrangements for producing data; probability; methods for drawing conclusions from data: significance testing, confidence interval estimation, linear regression, analysis of variance. Examples from many disciplines including the social and natural sciences. Statistical software is used. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 221 with a grade of C or better.
STAT401: Applied Statistics for the Sciences (3 hours lecture)
Organizing, displaying, and describing data; designing experiments; methods for drawing conclusions from data; significance testing, confidence intervals, linear regression, analysis of variance, chisquare tests of independence. Examples from disciplines in the natural and physical sciences. Statistical software is used. Not for Mathematics and Computer Science majors. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 111 or Math 112.
STAT403: Techniques and Applications of Statistics (3 hours lecture)
Statistical techniques for the social and behavioral sciences including estimation, tests of hypothesis, nonparametric statistics, regression and correlation. May not be taken for credit by mathematic majors. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 112.
STAT441: Statistical Computing (3 hours lecture)
This course is designed: (1) to acquaint students with the use of the computer in solving statistical problems, and (2) to develop intermediate level statistical methodology. Several statistical computing packages and the student's own programs will be utilized. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: STAT 330 or STAT 401 with a grade of C or better.
STAT442: Fundamentals of Modern Statistics II (3 hours lecture)
Continuation of STAT 440. Principles of statistical inference, categorical data analysis, one and twoway anova, multiple linear regression, nonparametric methods, bootstrap methods. Examples from a wide variety of disciplines. Statistical software is used. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: STAT 330 with a grade of C or better or STAT 401 with a grade of C or better.
STAT443: Introduction to Mathematical Statistics (3 hours lecture)
Develops statistical methods from probability theory. Topics discrete and continuous probability distributions, estimation, inference and hypothesis testing. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: MATH 340 with a grade of C or better; and STAT 330 or STAT 401 with a grade of C or better.
STAT481: Introduction to Statistical Data Mining (3 hours lecture)
Introduction to the concepts and applications of a variety of datamining methods. Data mining is the process of selecting, exploring, and modeling large amounts of data to uncover previously unknown patterns in the data. Statistical techniques covered include classification and regression trees, predictive modeling, and unsupervised learning. Handson applications to data sets from diverse fields. Statistical software is used. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: STAT 442 with a grade of C or better.
STAT487: Statistical Genomics (3 hours lecture)
Analysis of discrete data illustrated with genetic data on morphological characters, allozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and DNA sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian estimation including iterative procedures. Numerical resampling and bootstrapping. Development of statistical techniques for characterizing genetic disequilibrium and diversity. Locating genes with markers. Cross listed with Biology and Molecular Biology BIOL 487. 3 sh.
Prerequisites: BIOL 380 and STAT 330 or STAT 401, or equivalent.
STAT495: Topics in Statistical Science
Guided study of selected topics in statistical science such as exploratory data analysis, applied multivariate methods, statistical quality control, design of experiment. May be repeated once for a maximum of 6.0 credits. 1  3 sh.
Prerequisites: STAT 330 with a grade of C or better or STAT 401 with a grade of C or better.
STAT497: Undergraduate Research in Statistical Science
Individual research in an area of statistical science agreed upon by the student and instructor. The results of the research will be the basis of a seminar or colloquium to be given by the student. May be repeated five times for a total of six credits. Students must not accumulate more than six credits total in courses MATH 497, MATH 498, STAT 495, STAT 497. 1  3 sh.
Prerequisites: STAT 442 with a grade of C or better and departmental approval.