Scholarship on Teaching and Learning

Resources for the Research-Based Teaching Initiative Research and Theoretical Literature on Learning and Teaching

Making Large Courses Interactive

Faculty members will find below a variety of different kinds of sources, from journal articles and books to brief opinion pieces from the Chronicle of Higher Education and videotapes of forums on this topic. The subject matter includes social science research on how students learn (or don’t learn) in large lecture courses, chapters on lecturing from teaching handbooks, the reflections and reports of lecturers who have experimented successfully with small group or discussion strategies in large classes, and polemics both for and against the lecture as a viable teaching format.

Bibliography

“What Students Think About and Do in College Lecture Classes.” Teaching Learning Issue 53 (1984).

Brooks, David W. “Alternatives to Traditional Lecturing.” Journal of Chemical Education 61
(1984): 858-859.

“Improving Lectures” Cashin, William E. newsletter. 14 1985. Manhattan, Kansas: Center for Faculty Education and Development, Kansas State University.

“Is the Lecture a Dead Teaching Form?” Clayson, S. Hollis. Apr 12, 1994. Evanston, IL. Searle Center for Teaching Excellence, Northwestern University.

Dubrow, Heather and James, Wilkinson. “The Theory and Practice of Lectures.” The Art and Craft of Teaching. Gullette, M. M. ed. Cambridge: Harvard-Danforth Center, 1982. 25-37.

Dunn, Joe P. “Reflections of a Recovering Lectureholic.” National Teaching and Learning Forum 3
(1994)

Frederick, Peter J. “The Lively Lecture – 8 Variations.” College Teaching 34 (1986): 43-50.

Gleason, Maryellen. “Better Communication in Large Courses.” College Teaching 34 (1986):
20-24.

Gullette, Margaret Morganroth. “Leading Discussion in a Lecture Course: Some Maxims and an Exhortation.” Change (1992): 32-39.

Hosley, Catherine J. “How To Get Reactions From Students In Big, Impersonal Lecture Classes.” Chronicle of Higher Education 1987, 15

Lewis, Karron G. Taming the Pedagogical Monster: A Handbook for Large Class Instructors. Book: Center for Teaching Effectiveness, University of Texas at Austin, 1990.

Lowman, Joseph. “Selecting and Organizing Material for Class Presentations.” Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 1984. 96-118.

Lowman, Joseph. Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, 1984.

McKeachie, Wilbert J. “Lecturing.” Teaching Tips. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company, 1986. 69-85.

Meredith, Gerald M. “Two Rating Indicators of Excellence in Teaching in Lecture-Format Courses.” Psychological Reports 56 (1985): 52-54.

Meredith, Gerald M. “Intimacy as a Variable in Lecture-Format Courses.” Psychological Reports 57 (1985): 484-486.

Merrill Library & Learning Resources Program. “The Large Class.” Instructional Improvement 8 (1973): 1-3.

Monk, G. Stephen. “Student Engagement and Teaching Power in Large Classes.” Learning in Groups. Bouton, C., and R. Y., Garth eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. 1983. 14. 7-12.

Palmer, Stacy E. “The Art of Lecturing: A Few Simple Ideas Can Help Teachers Improve Their Skills.” Chronicle of Higher Education 1983, 19-20.

Rosenkoetter, John S. “Teaching Psychology to Large Classes: Videotapes, PSI, and Lecturing.” Teaching of Psychology 11 (1984): 85-87.

Silverstein, Brett. “Teaching a Large Lecture Course in Psychology: Turning Defeat into Victory.” Teaching of Psychology 9 (1982): 150-155.

Stanton, Harry E. “Small Group Teaching in the Lecture Situation.” Improving College and University Teaching 26 (1978): 69-70.

Weaver, Richard L. II. “Effective Lecturing Techniques: Alternatives to Classroom Boredom.” Teacher Educator 16 (1980): 2-8.

Weaver, Richard L. II. “The Small Group in Large Classes.” Educational Forum 48 (1983): 65-73.

Whooley, John. “Improving the Lecture.” Improving College and University Teaching 22 (1974): 183-185.

Wick, John W. “Making a Big Lecture Section a Good Course.” Improving College and University Teaching 22 (1974): 249-252.

Zarefsky, David. Lecturing as Communication. 1994. Evanston. Searle Center for Teaching Excellence, Northwestern University.

Stimulating and Guiding Student Discussions

Bruffee, Kenneth A. “Consensus Groups: A Basic Model of Classroom Collaboration.” in Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993. 28-51.

Christensen, C. Roland. “Every Student Teaches and Every Teacher Learns: The Reciprocal Gift of Discussion Teaching.” in Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership. Christensen, C. Roland David A., Garvin, and Ann, Sweet eds. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1991. 99-119.

Christensen, C. Roland. “The Discussion Teacher in Action: Questioning, Listening and Response.” in Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership. Christensen, C. Roland David A., Garvin, and Ann, Sweet eds. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1991. 153-172.

Christensen, Terry. “Calling on Students Without Fear and Loathing.” College Teaching 37 (1989): 33-35.

Clarke, John H. “Designing Discussions as Group Inquiry.” College Teaching 36 (1988): 140-143.

Ewens, William. “Teaching Using Discussion.” Organizational Behavior Teaching Review 10 (1986): 77-81.

Frederick, Peter. “The Dreaded Discussion: Ten Ways to Start.” Improving College and University Teaching 29 (1980): 109-114.

Glidden, Jock and Joanne G., Kurfiss. “Small-Group Discussion in Philosophy.” College Teaching 38 (1990): 3-8.

Gravette, Darlene J. “Asking the Right Questions, A Key to Good Class Discussions.” Teaching English in the Two-Year College 12 (1985): 300-302.

Jacobson, Robert L. “Asking Questions is the Key Skill Needed for ‘Discussion Teaching’.” Chronicle of Higher Education 1984, 20

Kraft, Robert G. “Group Inquiry Turns Passive Students Active.” College Teaching 33 (1985): 149-154.

Long, Dale D. and Jo C., Bedard. “Evaluation of a Discussion Technique Used for Both Classroom Instruction and Grade Assignment.” American Journal of Physics 53 (1985): 401-405.

Lowman, Joseph. “Enhancing Learning Through Classroom Discussion.” Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 1984. 119-144.

Forging an Intellectual Community in Small Classes. McEvoy, Arthur F. 1993. Evanston. Northwestern University.

McKeachie, Wilbert J. Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher. 8th ed.Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath, 1986.

Rosmarin, Adena. “The Art of Leading a Discussion.” On Teaching and Learning 1 (1985): 34-39.

Scott, Anne Firor. “Why I Teach by Discussion.” The Academic’s Handbook. Deneef, Leigh A. ed. Durham: Duke University Press, 1988. 141-145.

Smith, Barbara Leigh. “Creating Learning Communities.” Liberal Education 79 (1993): 32-39.
Teaching with Discussion. Tlumack, Jeffrey S. 1992. Video. Vanderbilt University Teaching Center.

Tyler, I. Keith. “Learning Through Discussion.” The Two Ends of the Log. Cooper, Russell M. ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1958. 254-261.

Welty, William M. “Discussion Method Teaching: How to Make It Work.” Change 21 (1989): 41-49.

Worsley, Alice F. “Improving Classroom Discussions: Ten Principles.” Improving College and University Teaching 23 (1975): 27-28.

Yelon, Stephen L. and Colleen R., Cooper. “Discussion: A Naturalistic Study of a Teaching Method.” Instructional Science 13 (1984): 213-224.

Learning and Student Motivation

There is a rich literature of psychological studies on motivation and human learning, most of which–although the actual language may vary–contrast extrinsic motivation (performing for a grade) with intrinsic motivation (developing an internalized interest in the subject matter). Many of the studies below chart experiments which tested the relationship between motivation orientation (extrinsic or intrinsic) and performance, and many of them offer practical suggestions for helping our students develop an intrinsic interest in–and hence an intrinsic motivation for– studying our subject matter.

Bibliography

Ames, Russell and Carole Ames. “Motivation and Effective Teaching.” Educational Values and Cognitive Instruction: Implications for Reform. Idol, Lorna, and Beau Fly, Jones eds. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum and Associates, 1991. 247-271.

Brewer, Ernest W., Dunn, John O., and Olszewski, Patricia. “Extrinsic Reward and Intrinsic Motivation: the Vital Link Between Classroom Management and Student Performance.” Journal of Education for Teaching 14 (1988): 151-170.

Brown, Ann L. “Motivation to Learn and Understand: On Taking Charge of One’s Own Learning.” Cognition and Instruction 5 (1988): 311-321.

Davis, Barbara Gross. Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, Inc. 1993.

Deci, Edward L. “Effects of Externally Mediated Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 18 (1970)

Deci, Edward L. and Porac, Joseph. “Cognitive Evaluation and Human Motivation.” Cognitive Evaluation and Theory and the Study of Human Motivation. Leeper, Mark R., and Greene, David, eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1978. 155-158.

Deci, Edward L. and Flaste, Richard. Why We Do What We Do: Understanding Self-Motivation. Penguin, 1996.

Fair, Emile M. III and Silvestri, Lynette “Effects of Rewards, Competition and Outcome on Intrinsic Motivation.” Journal of Instructional Psychology 19 (1992): 3-8.

Frederick, Peter J. “Motivating Students by Active Learning in the History Classroom.” Perspectives 31 (1993): 15-19.

Lepper, Mark R. “Motivational Considerations in the Study of Instruction.” Cognition and Instruction 5 (1997): 289-309.

Marsh, Herbert W. “Experimental Manipulations of University Student Motivation and Effects on Examination Performance.” British Journal of Educational Psychology 54 (1984): 206-213.

McMillan, James H. and Forsyth, Donelson R.,  “What Theories of Motivation Say About Why Learners Learn.” College Teaching: From Theory to Practice. Menges, Robert J., and Marilla D., Svinicki eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. 1991. 45. 39-52.

Motivating Students: How to Light Their Fire. Norden, Jeanette. Oct 24, 1994. Evanston, IL. Center for Teaching, Vanderbilt University.

Perry, Raymond P., Menec, Verena H., and Struthers, C. Ward. “Student Motivation From a Teaching Perspective.” Teaching on Solid Ground: Using Scholarship to Improve Practice. Menges, Robert J., and Maryellen, Weimer eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1996. 75-100.

Sakurai, Shigeo. “The Effects of Four Kinds of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation.” Psychologia 33 (1990): 220-229.

Weissinger, Ellen, Caldwell, Linda L., and Bandalos Deborah L., “Relation Between Intrinsic Motivation and Boredom in Leisure Time.” Leisure Sciences 14 (1992): 317-325.

Westrom, Marv and Abdullah , Shaban. “Intrinsic Motivation in Microcomputer Games.” Journal of Research on Computing in Education 24 (1992): 433-445.

Teaching and Learning Books

Amador, J.A, Miles, L., & Peters, C.B (2006).The practice of problem based learning: a guide to Implementing PBL in the college classroom. Bolton,MA: Anker Publishing Company, Inc.

Aarons, A. B. (1990). A Guide to Introductory Physics Teaching. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Bain, K. (2004). What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Barkley, E.F. (2009). Student Engagement Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bean, J.C. (2011). Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom. Berkeley, CA: Jossey-Bass

Biggs, J.B. (1987). Student Approaches to Learning and Studying. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research.

Biggs, J.B. (2012). Teaching For Quality Learning At University (Society for Research Into Higher Education).

Boud D., Keogh R., Walker D. (1985). Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Brockbank A., McGill, I. (1998). Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education. Buckingham, UK: SHARE/Open University Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Brookefield, S., Preskill, S. (1999). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bruffee, Kenneth A. (1993). Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cahn, Steven M. (1978). Scholars Who Teach. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.

Christensen, C. R., Garvin D. A., and Sweets A., (Eds.). (1991). Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School.

Christensen, C. R., Hansen A. J., and Moore J. F. (1987). Teaching and the Case Method – Instructor’s Guide. Boston: Harvard Business School.

Christensen, C.R. (1991). Every student teaches and every teacher learns: The reciprocal gift of discussion teaching. In C.R. Christensen, D.A. Garvin & A. Sweet (Eds.), Education for judgment: The artistry of discussion leadership (pp.137-152). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Cowan, J. (1998). On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher Reflection in Action: SRHE/OU

Davis, B.G. (1993). Tools for Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Delisle,R. (1997) How to use problem-based learning in the classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Duch, B.J, Groh S.E., & Allen, D.E. (Eds.), (2001). The power of problem-based learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Duhigg, C. (2012). The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business. New York, NY: Random House.

Dweck, C. (2006). Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York, NY: Random.

Entwistle, N.J., Richardson, J. T. E. Eysenck, M.W., and Warren Piper, D. (Eds.)(1987). A model of the teaching-learning process, in Student Learning: Research in Education and Cognitive Psychology (13-28). , London, UK: S.R.H.E./Open University Press.

Entwistle, N.J., Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding Student Learning. London: Croom Helm.

Entwistle, N.J., Tait, H. (1990). “Approaches to learning, evaluations of teaching, and preferences for contrasting academic environments”, Higher Education 19, 169- 194.

Farber, K. (2011). Change the World with Service Learning: How to Create, Lead, and Assess Service Learning Projects. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Gibson, J.J. (1997). The Theory of Affordances. R. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving, Acting, and Knowing (pp. 67-82). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Katz, J., and Mildred H. (1993). Turning Professors into Teachers. Phoenix: Oryx Press.

Knowlton, D.S. & Sharp, D.C.(Eds.),(2003).The problem based learning in the information age. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Leake, D.B.(Ed.),(1996).Case-based reasoning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Lehrer, J. (2012). Imagine: How Creativity Works. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

Lottero-Perdue, P.S., Fifield, S. (2010). “A Conceptual Framework for Higher Education Faculty Mentoring:, In Nilson, L.B., Miller, J.E. (Eds.), To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development (37-62). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lowman, J. (1995). Mastering the Techniques of Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Marsh, H.W., and Roche L.A.(1994). The Use of Students’ Evaluations of University Teaching to Improve Teaching Effectiveness. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

McKeachie, W.J. (1986). Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.

Modell, H.I. and Michael J.A., (Eds.) (1993). “Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (701).

Moon, J. (1999). Reflection in Learning and Professional Development Theory and Practice. London, UK: Kogan Page.

Pace, R.W., & Faules, D. F. (1994). Organizational Communication. (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Palmer, P. J., & Zajonc, A., & Scribner, M. (2010). The Heart of Higher Education: A Call to Renewal. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Pascarella, E.T., & Terenzini P.T., (1991). How College Affects Students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Perry, W. G. (1968). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. Boston: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Robertson, E. (2002). Using leadership to improve communication climate model: A strategy for engaging leaders in organizational communication. London, UK: Melcrum.

Saltmarsh, J., & Zlotkowski E. (Eds.), (2011). Higher Education and Democracy: Essays on Service-Learning and Civic Engagement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Schmeck, R. R. (Ed.)(1988). Learning Strategies and Learning Styles. New York, NY: Plenum.

Schon D. (1991). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. London, UK: Avebury.

Schwartz, B., & Reisberg, D. (1991). Learning and Memory. New York: W. W. Norton and Company: especially, 251ff.

Souza, T.J. (1999). “The social construction of communication climate: An analysis of at-risk students in an alternative high school.” Paper presented at the National Communication Association Convention, Chicago.

Souza, T.J., Dallimore, E.J., Aoki, E., & Pilling, B.C. (2010). “Communication Climate, Comfort, and Cold Calling: An Analysis of Discussion-Based Courses at Multiple Universities.” In L.B. Nilson & J.E. Miller (Eds.), To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development (pp.227- 250). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Steele, C.M.M. (2011). Whistling Vivaldi: How Stereotypes Affect Us and What We Can Do (Issues of Our Time). New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Tobias, S. (1992). Revitalizing Undergraduate Science. Tucson, Arizona: Research Corporation.

Wilkerson, L.& Gijselaers, WH. (Eds.),(1996).Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: theory and practice. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Wittrock, M.C. (1986). Handbook of Research on Teaching, Third Edition. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Zajonc, A. (2010). Meditation As Contemplative Inquiry: When Knowing Becomes Love. Great Barrington, MA: Lindisfarne Books.

Articles and Chapters

Arons, A.B. (1985). “Critical Thinking and the Baccalaureate Curriculum.” Liberal Education 71 (pp.141-158).

Angelo, T.A. (1993). “Classroom Assessment: Assessing to Improve Higher Learning in the Life Sciences”, in H.I. Model & J.A. Michael (Eds.), Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom (pp. 61-75). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Bain, K. (1993). “What’s Wrong (and Right) with Lectures?” The Class Act (pp.1-7).

Barzun, J. (1988, October 11). “Multiple Choice Flunks Out”, The New York Times, (pp.27).

Boice, R. (1991). “Quick Starters: New Faculty Who Succeed”. In T. Michae l& Franklin, J. (Eds.), Effective Practices for Improving Teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 48 (pp.111-120). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). “Toward an experimental ecology of human development.” American Psychologist, 32, (pp.513-531).

Bruffee K.A. (1993). Consensus Groups: A Basic Model of Classroom Collaboration. in Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge (pp.28-51). Baltimore Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bruffee K. A. (1993). Collaboration, Conversation, and Reacculturation in Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. (pp.15-27). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Bruffee, K.A. (1993). Mime and Supermime: Collaborative Learning and Instructional Technology. Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge (pp.98-110). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Clinchy, B. M. (1990). “Issues of Gender in Teaching and Learning”. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 1 (pp.52-67).

Daniel, D. B., & Poole, D. A. (2009). “Learning for life: An ecological approach to pedagogy” Perspectives on Psychological Science. 4 (pp.91-96).

Daniel, D. B. (2011, October). “Applying Gibson’s concept of affordances to the study and use of pedagogy in the classroom: An ecological approach.” Developments: Newsletter of the Society for Research in Child Development, 43 (pp.4).

Day, R.S. (1980). “Teaching from Notes: Some Cognitive Consequences”. In W.J. McKeachie (Ed.), Learning, Cognition, and College Teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2 (pp.95-112). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Entwistle, N.J. (in press). “Influences on the quality of student learning: implications for medical education.” South African Medical Journal.

Frederick, P. J. (1993). “Motivating Students by Active Learning in the History Classroom”. Perspectives, American Historical Association Newsletter 31 (pp.15- 19).

Gibb, J. (1961). “Defensive Communication”. Journal of Communication, 11 (pp.332-337).

Goodsell, A., Maher M., & Tinto, V. (Eds.) (1992). Collaborative Learning and the ‘Conversation of Mankind. Collaborative Learning: A Sourcebook for Higher Education (pp.23-33). State College, PA: National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment.

Gurung, R.A.R. (2004). “Pedagogical aids: Learning enhancers or dangerous detours?” Teaching of Psychology, 31 (pp.164-166).

Gurung, R.A.R., & Schwartz, B.M. (2010). “Riding the third wave of SoTL”. The International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 4(2) (pp.1- 6).

Hanning, R. W. (1984). “The Classroom as Theater of Self: Some Observations for Beginning Teachers”. ADE Bulletin 77 (pp.33-37).

Lowman, J. (1984). Evaluating Student Performance: Testing and Grading. in Mastering the Techniques of Teaching (pp. 184-209). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lowman, J. Selecting and Organizing Material for Class Presentations, in Mastering the Techniques of Teaching (pp.96-118). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Machina, K. (1987, May-June) “Evaluating Student Evaluations.” Academe (pp.1-2).

Marton, F., & Saljo, R. (1976). “On qualitative differences in learning. I-Outcome and process”. British Journal of Educational Psychology 46 (pp.4-11).

Marton, F., Saljo, R. (1984). “Approaches to learning. in Marton”, F., D.J. Hounsell, & Entwistle, N.J. (Eds.), The Experience of Learning (pp. 36-55). Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.

Meyer, J. H.F., & Muller, M.W. (1990). “Evaluating the quality of student learning. I-An unfolding analysis of the association between perceptions of learning context and approaches to studying at an individual level”. Studies in Higher Education 15, (pp.131-154).

Modell, H.I., & Carroll R. G. (1993). “Promoting Active Learning in Large Groups”, in Modell, H.I., & J.A. Michael (Eds.), Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom (pp.49-60). New York: New York Academy of Sciences.

Modell, H I., & Michael, J.A. (Eds.) (1993). Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom: Defining the Issues. Promoting Active Learning in the Life Science Classroom. New York: New York Academy of Sciences (pp. 1-7).

Nelson, C.E. (1989). “Skewered on the Unicorn’s Horn: The Illusion of Tragic Tradeoff Between Content and Critical Thinking in the Teaching of Science”, in L.W., Crow (Ed.), Enhancing Critical Thinking in the Sciences (pp. 17-27). Washington DC: Society for College Science Teachers.

Pask, G. (1976). “Styles and strategies of learning”, British Journal of Educational Psychology 46, (pp.128-148).

Perry, E. (1994, February). “Group Work and the Double Circle: Enriching Discussion in the Mid-Sized Class”, The Class Act.

Ramsden, P. (1981). “A study of the relationship between student learning and its academic context.” Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Lancaster.

Rubin, S. (1985, August 7). “Professors, Students, and the Syllabus.” The Chronicle of Higher Education (pp. 1-3).

Saljo, R. (1979). “Learning in the learner’s perspective. Some common-sense conceptions.” The Department of Education, University of Gothenburg.

Stice, J. E. (1976). “A First Step Toward Improved Teaching.” Engineering Education 66 (pp. 394-398).

Syverud, K.D. (1993, June). “Taking Students Seriously: A Guide for New Law Teachers”, Journal of Legal Education (pp.23-33).

Taylor, E. (1983). Orientations to study: a longitudinal interview investigation of students in two human studies degree courses at Surrey University. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Surrey.

Thomas, P. (1986). The structures and stability of learning approaches. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Queensland, Australia.

Treisman, U. (1992, November). “Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College.” The College Mathematics Journal (pp.362-372).

Weiss, C. A. (1992). But How Do We Get Them to Think? Teaching Excellence: Toward the Best in the Academy 4 (pp.1-2).

Welty, W. M. (1989). Discussion Method Teaching. Change 21 (No. 4) (pp. 41-49)

Ethnic and Gender Issues in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Courses: An Annotated Bibliography

American Council on Education (2002). 2001-2002: Nineteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education excerpts from the executive summary.

Bell, A. E., & Spencer, S. J. (2002). “The effect of stereotype threat on women’s performance on the fundamentals of engineering exam” Proceedings of the 2002 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition. Retrieved December 18, 2002 from http://www.ecpe.vt.edu/fac_support/DSPCL/docs/ASEE02.pdf

Beller, M. and Gafni, N. (2000, January). “Can Item Format (Multiple Choice vs. Open-Ended) Account for Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement?” Sex Roles, 42 (1/2), 1-21, January 2000.

Born, W.K., Revelle, W., & Pinto, L.H. (2002). “Improving biology performance with workshop groups.” Journal of Science Education and Technology, 11(4), 347-365.

Breslow, L. (2001). Transforming novice problem solvers into experts.

Cohoon, J.M. (2001). “What causes women to discontinue pursuing the undergraduate computer science major at higher rates than men: Toward improving female retention in the computer science major. Communications of the ACM” 44(5), 108-114. Retrieved December 10, 2002 from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/374308.374367

Duffy, J., Warren, K., & Walsh, M. (2001). “Classroom interactions: Gender of teacher, gender of student, and classroom subject”. Sex Roles, 45(9/10), 579-593.

Fraser-Abder, P. (2001). Preparing science teachers for culturally diverse classrooms. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 12(2), 123-131.

Gainor, K.A. (1998). “Social cognitive expectations and racial identity attitudes in predicting the math choice intentions of Black college students”. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(4), 403-413.

Inzlicht, M. & Ben-Zeev, T. (2002). “A threatening intellectual environment: Why females are susceptible to experiencing problem-solving deficits in the presence of males.” Psychological Science, 11(5), 365-371. Retrieved December 18, 2002 from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/mawhatley/7670/readings/self3.pdf

Keller, J. (2002, August). “Blatant stereotype threat and women’s math performance: Self-handicapping as a strategic means to cope with intrusive negative performance expectations”. Sex Roles, 47(3/4), 193-198.

Marx, D.M., Brown, J.L., & Steele, C.M. (1999). “Allport’s legacy and the situational press of stereotypes.” Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 491-502.

Montgomery, S. & Barrett, M.C. (2002). Undergraduate women in science and engineering: Providing academic support.

Nauta, M.M., Epperson, D.L., & Kahn, J.H. (1998). “A multiple-groups analysis of predictors of higher level career aspirations among women in mathematics, science, and engineering majors” Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(4), 483-496.

Pearl, A., Pollack, M.E., Riskin, E., Thomas, B., Wolf, E. & Wu, A. (1990).”Becoming a computer scientist: A report by the ACM committee on the status of women in computing science.” Communications of the ACM, 33(11), 47-57. Retrieved December 18, 2002 from http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/92755.92757

Shih, M., Pittinsky, T.L., & Ambady, N. “Stereotype susceptibility: Shifts in quantitative performance from socio-cultural identification.” Retrieved December 3, 2002 from http://www.si.umich.edu/ICOS/shihpaper.html

Smith, J.L., & White, P.H. (2002). “An examination of implicitly activated, explicitly activated, and nullified stereotypes on mathematical performance: It’s not just a woman’s issue.” Sex Roles, 47(3/4), 179-191.

Steele, C.M. (1999). “Thin ice: Stereotype threat and Black college students.” The Atlantic Online. Retrieved November 11, 2002 from http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99aug/9908stereotype.htm

Verity, P.G., Gilligan, M.R., Frischer, M.E., Booth, M.G., Richardson, J.P., & Franklin, C. (2002). “Improving undergraduate research experiences: Lessons from a historically black university’s unusual collaboration.” AAHE Bulletin, 3-6.

Walsh, M., Hickey, C., and Duffy, J. (1999). “Influence of Item Content and Stereotype Situation on Gender Differences in Mathematical Problem Solving.” Sex Roles, 41 (3/4), 219-240, August 1999.

Online and Hybrid Learning

Bates, A.W., & Poole, G. (2003). Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bender, T. (2003). Discussion-based Online Teaching to Enhance Student Learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Bruff, D. (2009). Teaching with Classroom Response Systems. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass.

Cambridge, D. (2010). E-portfolios for Lifelong Learning and Assessment. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Colvin Clark, R., & Mayer, R. E. (2003). E-Learning and The Science of Instruction. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Conrad, R., & Donaldson, J. A. (2004). Engaging the Online Learner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Finkelstein, J. (2006). Learning in Real Time. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2008). Blended Learning in Higher Education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Haymore Sandholtz, J., Ringstaff, C., & Dwyer, D. C. (1997). Teaching with Technology Creating Student-Centered Classrooms. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Hertel, J. P., & Millis, B. J. (Eds.). (2002). Using Simulations to Promote Learning in Higher Education: An Introduction. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Horton, W., & Horton K., (2003). E-Learning Tools and Technologies. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Horton, W. (2006). E-Learning by Design. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Holtz, S., Hobson, N. (2007). How to Do Everything with Podcasting. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (Eds.). (2008). Digital Literacies. New York, NY: Peter Lang
Publishing, Inc.
Lehman, R. M., & Conceicao, S. C. O. (2010). Creating a Sense of Presence in Online Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Mcgreal, R. (Ed.). (2004). Online Education Using Learning Objects. New York, NY: Routledge.

Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (1999). Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating Online Learning Together in Community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Prensky, M. (2010). Teaching Digital Natives: Partnering for Real Learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Price, B. (2007). Managing Technology in Our Schools Establishing Goals and Creating a Plan. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.

Rice IV, W. H. (2006). Moodle E-Learning Course Development. Olton, Birmingham, UK: Packt Publishing Ltd.

Salmon, G. (2002). E-tivities The Key to Active Online Learning. Abingdon, Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer.

Tapscott, D. & Williams, A. D. ( 2006). Wikinomics How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. New York, NY: Penguin Group.

Warlick, D. F. (2005). Raw Materials for the Mind: A Teacher’s Guide to Digital Literacy. Raleigh, NC: The Landmark Project.

Wiess, R. E., Knowlton, D. S., & Speck, B. W. (Eds.). (2000). Principles of Effective Teaching in the Online Classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wilber, D. J. (2010). iWrite Using Blogs, Wikis, and Digital Stories in the English Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.

Zubizarreta, J. (2004). The Learning Portfolio Reflective Practice for Improving Student Learning. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Print Resources

Arons, A. (1985). “Critical Thinking and the Baccalaureate Curriculum”. Liberal Education 71.(2) 141-157.

Bruffee, K. (1993). “Consensus Groups: A Basic Model of Classroom Collaboration”. Collaborative Learning: Higher Education, Interdependence, and the Authority of Knowledge. 28-51. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP.

Frederick, P. (1980). The Dreaded Discussion: Ten Ways to Start, Improving College and University Teaching. (109-14) Washington, D.C.: Heldref Publications.

Hodges, E. (1997). “Negotiating the Margins: Some Principles for Responding to Our Students Writing, Some Strategies for Helping Students Read Our Comments.” Writing to Learn: New Directions for Teaching and Learning 69 77-89.

Treisman, U. (1992). “Studying Students Studying Calculus: A Look at the Lives of Minority Mathematics Students in College.” The College Mathematical Journal 23.5 362-372.