Two students looking in a project board


The field of instructional design continues to develop as new research guides our practice. Below you will find a list of some notable research in the following categories:



Online/Hybrid Teaching Basics

  • Boettcher, J.V. & Conrad, R.M. (2016). The Online Teaching Survival Guide: Simple and Practical Pedagogical Tips. 2nd Edition San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Darby, F and Lang, J. (2019). Small Teaching Online: Applying Learning Science in Online Classes. Jossey-Bass.  
  • Ko, S. & Rossen, S. (2016). Teaching Online: A Practical Guide. 4th Edition New York: Routledge.
  • Nilson, L. B., & Goodson, L. A. (2017). Online teaching at its best: Merging instructional design with teaching and learning research. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Palloff, P., & Pratt K., (2011).  The Excellent Online Instructor: Strategies for Professional Development. San Francisco: Wiley.
  • Palloff, R.M. and Pratt, K. (2007). Building Online Learning Communities: Effective Strategies for the Virtual Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Stavredes, T. (2011). Effective Online Teaching: Foundations and Strategies for Student Success. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.



Course Design Resources

  • Dirksen, J. (2015) Design for How People Learn: Voices That Matter, 2nd Edition
  • Linder, K. (2016) The Blended Course Design Workbook: A Practical Guide
    Companion Website:
  • Schiffman, S.S. (2010). Instructional Systems Design: Five views of the field. In G.J. Anglin (Ed.), Instructional Technology: Past, Present, and Future 3rd ed. (pp. 131-142). Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
  • Sosulski, K., Vai, M. (2011). Essentials of Online Course Design: A Standards-Based Guide. New York: Routledge.
  • Stein, J. & Graham, C.(2020) Essentials for Blended Learning, A Standards-Based Guide. 2nd Edition. Routledge.
  • Vai, M. & Sosulski, K., (2015) Essentials of Online Course Design: A Standards-Based Guide. 2nd Edition. New York: Routledge. Companion Website:



Characteristics of Online Students

  • Carr, S. (2000). As distance education comes of age, the challenge is keeping the students. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 23, 39.
  • Gibson, C. C. (1998). Distance Learners in Higher Education: Institutional Responses for Quality Outcomes. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.
  • Hara, N., & Kling, R. (2001). Student distress in web-based distance education. Educause Quarterly, 3, 68-69.
  • Young, S. (2006). Student views of effective online teaching in higher education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 20(20), 65-77.



Online Learning Community

  • Beer, M., F. Slack, and G. Armitt. 2005. Collaboration and teamwork: Immersion and presence in an online learning environment. Information Systems Frontiers 7 (1): 27-37.
  • Bender, T. (2003). Discussion-based online teaching to enhance student learning: Theory, practice, and assessment. Sterling, VA: Stylus Pub Llc.
  • Bonk, C., Wisher, R. & Nigrelli, M. (2004). Learning communities, communities of practice: Principles, technologies and examples. In K. Littleton, D. Miell & D. Faulkner (Eds.), Learning to collaborate, collaborating to learn, (pp.199-219). Hauppauge, NY: NOVA Science Publishers.
  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
  • Hanna, D.E., Glowacki-Dudka, M. & Conceiçáo-Runlee, S. (2000). 147 practical tips for teaching online groups. Essentials of Web-based education. Madison, WI: Atwood Publishing.
  • Hillman, Daniel C. A., Deborah J. Willis & Charlotte N. Gunawardena (1994). Learner-Interface Interaction in Distance Education: An Extension of Contemporary Models and Strategies for Practitioners. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 30-42.
  • Moore, M.G. (1989). Three types of interaction. The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6.
  • Morris, L. V., & Finnegan, C. L. (2008-2009). Best practices in predicting and encouraging student persistence and achievement online. Journal of College Student Retention, 10, 55-64.
  • Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating online: Learning together in community. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Palloff, R.M. and Pratt, K. (2007). Building online learning communities: Effective strategies for the virtual classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Richardson, J. C., & Swan, K. (2003). Examining Social Presence in Online Courses in Relation to Students’ Perceived Learning and Satisfaction. Journal of the Asynchronous Learning Network, 7(1), 68-88.
  • Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, D. R. & Archer, W. Assessing social presence in
    asynchronous text-based computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, 14(2), 50-71, 2001.
  • Short, J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommunications. London: John Wiley & Sons.
  • CATME Smarter Teamwork: Retrieved from:



Online Teaching and Learning Assessment

  • Brew, L. S. (2008). The role of student feedback in evaluating and revising a blended learning course. Internet and Higher Education, 11, 58-105.
  • Gaytan, J & McEwen, C. B (2007). Effective Online Instructional and Assessment Strategies. The American Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 117-132
  • Robles, M., and S. Braathen. (2002). Online assessment techniques. The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal 44 (1): 39-49.
  • Russell, J., L. Elton, D. Swinglehurst, and T. Greenhalgh. (2006). Using the online environment in assessment for learning: A case-study of a Web-based course in primary care. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 31 (4): 465-478.
  • Stiggins, R., and J. Chappuis. 2005. Using student-involved classroom assessment to close achievement gaps. Theory Into Practice 44 (1): 11-18.
  • Wilson, H. W. (2004). Continuous assessment: Guaranteed learning? Distance Education Report 8 (12): 6.



Foundational Instructional Design Literature

  • Aragon, S. R. (2003). Creating social presence in online environments. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2003(100), 57-68.
  • Bailey, C. J., & Card, K. A. ( 2009). Effective pedagogical practices for online teaching: perception of experienced instructors. Internet and Higher Education, 12, 152-155.
  • Bonk, C., Wisher, R. & Lee, J. (2008). Moderating Learner-Centered E-Learning: Problem and Solutions, Benefits and Implications. In L. Tomei, Distance Learning: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, (pp. 536-561). Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
  • Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. Washington DC: Washington Center News.
  • Clark, R. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53(4), 445-460.
  • Clark, R.C. & Mayer, R. (2008). E-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers of multimedia learning, 2nd Ed. San Francisco, CA: Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Cornelius, F., & Glasgow, M. E. S. (2007). The development and infrastructure needs required for success-one college’s model: Online nursing education at Drexel University. TechTrends, 51(6), 32-35.
  • Duffy, T. M. and J. R. Kirkley (2004). Learner-centered theory and practice in distance education: Cases from higher education. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Dykman, C. A., & Davis, C. K. (2008). Online education forum: Part two -teaching online versus teaching conventionally. Journal of Information Systems Education, 19(2), 157-164.
  • Gagne, R., Briggs, L. & Wager, W. (1992). The events of instruction. In Principles of Instructional Design (4th Ed.). Fort Worth, TX: IIBJ College Publishers.
  • Gagne, R., Briggs, L. & Wager, W. (1992). The outcomes of instruction. In Principles of Instructional Design (4th Ed.). Fort Worth, TX: HBJ College Publishers.
  • Holmberg, B. (1986). Growth and Structure of Distance Education. London: Croom Helm.
  • Kozma, R. (1991). Learning with media. Review of Educational Research, 61(2), 179-212.
  • Merrill, M. David. (2002). First principles of instruction. Educational Technology Research & Development, 50(3), 43-59.
  • Middleton, A. J. (1997). How effective is distance education? International Journal of Instructional Media, 24(2), 133-137.
  • Reiser, R, A (2001) A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(1), 53-64.
  • Reiser, R, A (2001) A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 57-67.
  • Ruiz, J. G., Mintzer, M. J., & Leipzig, R. M. (2006). The impact of e-learning in medical education. Academic Medicine, 81, 207-212.
  • Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. ( 2000). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill (Prentice- Hall)
  • Solomon, Gilly (2000). E-Moderating: The key to teaching and learning online. London: Kogan Page, Ltd.
  • Weiss, R. E., D. S. Knowlton, et al. (2000). Principles of effective teaching in the online classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.