Shot of a building at night

Supplemental Resources

Below you will find a variety of presentations and downloadable PDFs for your convenience. Please feel free to use them and tweak these presentations for yourself and what works best for you!

Benefits to Involvement

Here are the 12 Reasons Why You Should Join a Student Organization:

  1. You’ll learn more about yourself.
  2. You’ll develop soft skills.
  3. You’ll learn how to work with a team.
  4. You’ll get networking opportunities.
  5. You’ll gain practical experience in a safe environment.
  6. You’ll be able to use the skills you’ve learned in class.
  7. You’ll learn how to engage with diverse groups of people.
  8. You’ll gain leadership skills.
  9. You’ll get a break from your studies.
  10. You’ll expand your resume.
  11. You’ll be able to give back to the community.
  12. You’ll have fun!

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Leadership vs. Management


  • Establish agendas
  • Set timetables
  • Allocate resources
  • Provide structure
  • Make job placements
  • Establish rules and procedures
  • Develop incentives
  • Take corrective action


  • Create a vision
  • Clarify the big picture
  • Set strategies
  • Communicate goals
  • Build teams
  • Energize
  • Empower subordinates and colleagues
  • Influence and inspire

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Self Awareness: How it Creates Better Leaders

Complete a Self-Awareness Self-Assessment

Author: Mike Bundrant

How self-aware are you? Do you have enough curiosity to take a penetrating self-awareness test with a few twists? The quiz on this page will inspire you to think about areas of life you may have never considered. It could be challenging. That’s good!

Why? Because enlightenment begins with self-awareness. This quiz puts self-awareness in a framework that creates insight. On a journey toward greater enlightenment, this could be a tool you’ve been missing. Most people report more than one aha-moment. Sound good? Any good self-awareness test considers what goes on beneath the surface.

The iNLP Center uses the diagram above when teaching the NLP Meta Model, which is a set of questions that probe beneath the surface of vague communication. The Meta Model opens the door into a whole new world of self-discovery. Some of these discoveries are featured in our self-awareness test. The unconscious becomes conscious: Enlightenment! The self you can be aware of is much more than the conscious mind. Neuro-Linguistic Programming suggests much of our thinking and communication lies outside conscious awareness (non-verbal communication, to give one simple example, goes largely unnoticed by most). Non-conscious thoughts and communication have a much greater impact than what we consciously notice. Here’s a great post that cites research on this.

Likewise, your unconscious mind has a greater impact on your life than you can imagine. For example, 90% of decisions are made unconsciously, according to research. You only know what you’ve decided moments after the fact. Doesn’t it seem important to increase self-awareness? The more aware you are; the more choices you have!

10 Self-Awareness Test Categories


A classic model of neuro-linguistic programming, the VAK model suggests we process information on the inside through seeing, hearing and feeling. Further, our processing is redundant. In other words, seeing an internal image will inspire feelings about the image and sounds either related to the image or our own inner commentary. Seeing, hearing and feeling all work together.


A personal paradigm is a worldview. It answers questions about how life exists and why we’re here. There is a God who created the universe. There is not a God. People are basically good and here to help each other. People are animals interested in survival. And so forth.


Personal beliefs are perspectives about what is true (for you). In the self-awareness test, we’ll focus on your internal beliefs related to who you are and what you’re capable of accomplishing in the world.


Life values are indications of what’s important to you in life. You can trust that a value is important to you (or congruent) when it successfully guides your decisions. So, if health is important to you, then you will make healthy decisions. If success is important to you, then you’ll make decisions and spend your time in ways that lead to greater success.


Inner conflict is part of the human condition. It happens when your beliefs conflict with each other. For example, you may believe you are capable of succeeding in life. At the same time, you may harbor doubt about your abilities. This is a sign of inner conflict.

You may also have values that conflict. You may value security because it helps you feel safe. At the same time, you may love freedom. These two values may lead to conflicting desires and difficult decisions.


Triggers are those things in the outside world that automatically set you off into a negative state. A classic example is someone running their fingernails down a chalkboard (although chalkboards aren’t so common anymore). This might make you cringe instantly.

When you find yourself in a negative state, there is always a trigger. Something that prompted your reaction. A particular tone of voice or seeing a specific object (dirty socks on the floor) might trigger you, for example.


The influence of parents or primary caregivers is pervasive. Nobody leaves childhood without taking their parents with them on the inside. Beliefs, values, behaviors and personal paradigms are all heavily influenced by parents during formative years. How are you carrying your parents?


We all have limitations. Some of these are self-imposed, usually due to limiting beliefs. Others are legitimate limitations to our intelligence and natural skills. For example, I know I do not have the intellectual capacity to formulate physics theories like Einstein. I know I can’t beat Roger Federer in tennis. In this case, the word can’t is not a negative term. It’s simply the truth about the limits of my skills or natural gifts.


Your own worst enemy! Do you know why you sometimes sabotage your success? Do you know how – or understand the intention behind self-sabotage? This part of the quiz will highlight how you might get in your own way.


People are naturally goal-oriented. We move toward what we want. Consciously setting goals is one way to be intentional about the future. This section of the self-awareness test will help you learn where you stand in this area.

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Coping with Stress

10 Step Solution Guide

  1. Prioritize Your Health:
    It is important to remember that YOU come first. If you are not feeling well, take time to rest and relax before taking on a workload again.
  2. Get a Good Night’s Sleep:
    Getting a good night’s sleep is something that may seem impossible for a college student, especially when a lot is on their mind between school, relationships, work, etc. However, it is crucial for a college student to get eight hours of sleep each night. In order to get a good night’s sleep, it is important to have a quiet mind and body. Also, make sure the room you are sleeping in is comfortable for you. Usually, a dark, quiet, cool room will help.
  3. Practice Deep Breathing:
    Breathing is an important tool for maintaining stress. Obviously, we breathe every day, but studies have shown that taking deep breaths is beneficial when trying to relax. Here’s a routine to practice:
    • Inhale SLOWLY for five counts.
    • Hold your breath for 5-10 seconds.
    • Exhale SLOWLY for eight counts.
  4. Stay Hydrated:
    Drinking water is super important when trying to stay balanced and distressed. Water is a vital part of our everyday lives and helps regulate cortisol levels to maintain a stress-free day.
  5. Eat Well:
    Sugary foods (also known as comfort food) are unlikely to help your stress levels, even if they do make you feel good. These kinds of food keep your body and mind wired, which will cause your stress to continue. It is important to stay away from a carbohydrate diet and drink herbal teas (green teas or chamomile).
  6. Exercise:
    Exercising regularly is known to improve your mood. Not only does exercising make you feel good, but it also takes your mind off of any worries that you may be having. So whether it’s running on a treadmill or punching a punching bag, GET ACTIVE!
  7. Maintain a Positive Mindset:
    It is important to remember: POSITIVE MIND + POSITIVE VIBES = POSITIVE LIFE!!! Being in a constant state of happiness is something that may not seem realistic, but it is important to remember that every situation has a bright side to it. The more you think positively, the more likely you are to reduce any stress or anxiety you may be feeling.
  8. Master Your Time:
    Time management is a KEY FACTOR in relieving stress. Time management helps reduce long-term stress by giving you direction of what you have to do and when you have to do it. It is important to create an action plan for the day, follow a schedule, and/or write in a planner. Just remember, as long as you commit to taking action, time management becomes easy.
  9. Take a Break From Technology:
    We live in a world today where cell phones, computers and tablets are attached to our hips and are easily accessible. Some people become anxious when they are not constantly connected to their phones or social media accounts because of the fear of missing out. It is important to take time out of your day to focus on the work that you are doing, not your Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, etc. By taking a step back from technology, the stress of not completing your work on time is eliminated.
  10. Learn To Say NO:
    It is okay to realize that saying “No” to someone is not being selfish. Saying “Yes” so often can add up quickly, and before you know it a big chunk of your time has been used up. If someone is asking you to perform a task that you know you cannot simply accomplish, it is okay to RESPECTFULLY say “No”.

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Getting Involved at Montclair State

Clubs and Organizations offered to Montclair State Students:

  • Academic/Professional: organizations created to enhance academic and professional development
  • Art: clubs and organizations for those who enjoy the fine or performing arts.
  • Religious/Spiritual: clubs and organizations for those who like to keep in touch with their spirituality.
  • Special Interest: clubs that really speak to student’s personal interests.
  • Service: for the students who like to get involved with their community.
  • Athletics: clubs for those who like to stay fit and active.
  • Cultural: for those who like to stay connected to their cultural backgrounds.
  • Political/Activist: for those who like to have their voices heard.

Departments/Offices offered to Montclair State Students:

  • The Commuter Student Programs & Services: provides students with the ability to interact with other commuter students.
  • The Office of Greek Life: a fraternity or sorority can help personalize your college experience and serve as an avenue for endless opportunities.
  • Department of Campus Recreation: provides programs, services and facilities that encourage personal development and learning experiences by making good choices in sports and recreation.
  • The Center for Student Involvement: help plan events for Weekends at Montclair (WAM!) or work within the CSI office.

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Job Readiness and Interviewing


Listen carefully to the question and think of an event. Take a few seconds to ensure you have the best example you can. Don’t rush it.


Describe a specific event or situation that you were in; the who, what, where, when, etc.


Explain the task you had to complete, highlighting any specific challenges or constraints (i.e.: deadlines, issues or costs).


Describe the specific actions that you took to complete the task. These should highlight desirable traits the interviewer is looking for.


Close with the result of your efforts. Include figures to quantify the result if possible.

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Email Etiquette

The DOs and DON’Ts of Email Etiquette:


  • Put the primary email recipients in the “To” field.
  • CC anyone you do not expect to respond to your email.
  • BCC larger distribution lists or those email addresses that should be kept private.
  • Use a concise, descriptive subject line.
  • Star the email with a formal greeting.
  • Be clear and concise in the body of your email.
  • Break the email into sensible paragraphs.
  • Use proper sentence structure, spelling, grammar, language and punctuation.
  • Keep your salutations formal.


  • Leave the subject line empty.
  • Use abbreviations, acronyms or emoticons.
  • Use inappropriate language, humor or tone.
  • Assume an informal writing style.
  • Email someone multiple times if you need an immediate response.
  • “Reply All” without reviewing the “To” and “CC” fields.
  • Write one long email.

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Crafting Your Elevator Pitch

Four Key Steps:

  1. Create a quick introduction about yourself (name, the college you’re attending/graduated from, major/degree received).
  2. Tell your future employer what you are seeking (explain your career goals and expectations).
  3. Provide your experience (explain any professional or personal experience you have related to the position you are applying for).
  4. Tell your future employer what you can offer (describe your skills and how you would benefit the workplace or organization you are applying for).
Understanding Social Cues
Nonverbal Cue Example What it Signals to the Other Person
Maintaining Eye Contact Looking other person in the eyes while speaking Interest and confidence in the message
Avoiding Eye Contact Looking down or away while speaking Anxiety, feeling embarrassed, unsure, discomfort, disinterest or the desire not to communicate
Closed Body Posture Arms crossed while speaking, facing away Defensiveness, fear, lack of desire or interest in talking
Open Body Posture Facing directly, leaning towards the person, being animated Comfort in speaking, feeling engaged in the conversation
Overly Rigid Body Positioning Sitting or standing in a stiff, unrelaxed position Anxiety, frustration, anger or defiance
Overly Relaxed Body Positioning Slouching while listening Feeling lack of importance in the conversation, bored, disrespect
Movement Habitual acts such as foot tapping, playing with something, head scratching etc. Lack of desire, nervousness, uncertainty
Tone of Speech Speaking quietly Feeling worried, shy or intimidated
Rate of Speech Speaking rapidly or incoherently Anxiety or fear
Professional Workplace Social Cues

Have you ever had a pleasant interaction with a coworker that suddenly went awry? Perhaps you made a slightly off-color joke that didn’t quite land, or you were in the midst of yukking it up with a colleague when he suddenly excused himself to answer a suspiciously silent phone call. The fact of the matter is that 60-90% of our communication with others is non-verbal. With that in mind, it’s incredibly important to pay attention not only to what your coworkers are saying, but also to how they’re saying it. It’s equally important, of course, to monitor how you’re coming across.

Here are 16 easily missed social cues to look out for in the workplace, and how you should respond to them:

  1. Personal space: If your coworker is inching away from you when you talk, you might be invading their personal bubble. Standing too close (or far) from someone can be awkward. For interactions with most Americans and Western Europeans, try to maintain a distance of about three feet, depending on how familiar you are with the other person. Personal space and physical contact norms vary by culture, so brush up on your business destination before you travel.
  2. Tone of voice: Don’t just listen to what your coworkers are saying–pay attention to the inflection, pitch, articulation and volume of their speech. It’s equally essential, as any great speaker could tell you, to regulate your own tone. You don’t want listeners to misconstrue your meaning based on nonverbal associations. Vocal intonation and inflection are highly important in both meetings and presentations.
  3. Tone of text: While tone of voice is usually fairly simple to discern, parsing emails can be a little more complicated. Be wary of shorter statements–a terse “Please advise?” might mean, “Why are you dropping the ball on this?” Be sure to proofread your own messages to ensure you’re sending effective emails that accomplish what you need them to.
  4. Vocal register: Whether you’re asking a question or listening to a presentation, be aware of the pitch of the speaker’s voice. Higher registers tend to suggest excitement, whereas lower registers are usually reserved for more serious matters.
  5. Eye contact: Darting eyes may be a symptom of anxiety or insecurity. If someone’s looking you straight in the eyes, they’re either extremely confident or very comfortable in the conversation. Both are impressions that you should aim to convey.
  6. Fidgeting: Speaking of anxiety, fidgeting is a universal sign of discomfort. If you’re talking to someone and they begin to play with their hair or shift from one foot to the other, they may either be uneasy or uninterested in the conversation. Be aware of your own fidgeting, and attempt to cut out any nervous habits that might signal disinterest.
  7. Crossed arms: If, on the other hand, your co-workers are standing with their arms crossed, they might be taking a defensive stance. If someone’s closed off physically, chances are they’re also closed off to the conversation.
  8. Wardrobe choices: Dress for the job you want, not the job you have. Those who dress well project more confidence than those who don’t. So if a coworker isn’t dressing their best, chances are they’re not feeling their best either.
  9. Facial expressions: Your facial expression is often (consciously or unconsciously) tied to emotion. So if a coworker is scowling, no matter what they say, chances are they’re not in a good mood. If you’re trying to convey an upbeat outlook, make sure your face is sending the same message.
  10. Smile style: It’s fairly easy to tell a fake smile from a genuine one. A real smile involves more facial muscles and more crinkles around your eyes, so it’s easy to differentiate between a genuine grin and a forced smirk.
  11. Attentive stance: The next time you’re speaking with someone, observe whether they’ve pointed their toes and squared their shoulders towards you. If so, it means you have their full attention.
  12. Mirroring: Is the person you’re talking to mirroring your physical stance or tone of voice? If so, chances are they’re making a genuine effort to engage with you–whether the mirroring is purposeful or subconscious.
  13. Checking the tech: If a co-worker is constantly checking their phone (or smartwatch) during a conversation or presentation, the message they’re sending is very clear–they’re not interested in what the other person has to say. To convey respect, be sure to keep your phone in your pocket while others are speaking.
  14. Poor posture: While many of us have poor posture from hunching over our computers, notably droopy shoulders are often a sign of exhaustion. If you notice a coworker slouching, it might be best to give them some space.
  15. Sudden silence: If you walk into a conversation and everything gets quiet, make a subtle exit–chances are you’ve interrupted a private moment.
  16. Chiming in: If you do join a conversation, make sure your coworkers are as engaged as you are. If you find yourself monologuing while your coworkers are giving terse, one-word responses, then it might be best to gracefully walk away, or at least cede control of the chat.
Check out the PowerPoint
The Process to Becoming an Effective Leader

Know Yourself

  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Values
  • Needs
  • Styles (learning, teaching, personality, membership, leadership)

Lead Yourself

  • Time management
  • Organization
  • Self-care
  • Self-discipline
  • Perseverance
  • Developing and maintaining family, interpersonal, and intimate relationships
  • Academic, social, personal goals and objective
  • Broaden Your Perspectives… Understanding Others
  • Hierarchy of needs
  • Racial, cultural, gender, sexual orientation, religious class, ability
  • Power, privilege, oppression, liberation, individual and institutional discrimination

Develop and Refine Skills

  • Leadership theory and practice
  • Communication
  • Group development
  • Inclusion
  • Critical thinking

Remember: You as a person and a leader will ALWAYS have the potential and capability to be awesome – to be a leader! It is just a matter of making the choice to better yourself.

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What Is Your Why?

Inspiring leaders think, act and communicate the same way – from the inside out. They follow a naturally occurring pattern called The Golden Circle.

  • WHY means what is your purpose, cause or belief. WHY does your company exist? WHY do you get out of bed every morning? WHY should anyone care?
  • HOWs are your values and principles that guide HOW you bring your cause (WHY) to life (systems & processes).
  • WHY is just a belief. HOWs are the actions you take to realize that belief. WHATs are the results – everything you say, do or make (products, services, marketing, PR, culture and whom you hire) – this is where authenticity happens. A proof of WHY.
  • Authenticity means your Golden Circle is in balance. WHAT & HOW you do things must be consistent with your WHY.

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