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Elaine Hitchcock

Chairperson, Communication Sciences and Disorders

B.A., Montclair State University
M.A., Montclair State University
Ph.D., New York University
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Elaine Russo Hitchcock is a professor in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at Montclair State University. Dr. Hitchcock is a certified speech-language pathologist with over 20 years of clinical experience working with multiple clinical populations including many individuals with speech sound disorders, motor speech disorders, and voice disorders. At the Montclair State University-Clinical Biofeedback Lab, she conducts research investigating the effectiveness of visual biofeedback techniques, including ultrasound, visual-acoustic and electropalatographic (EPG) biofeedback, as a form of intervention for individuals with communication disorders. Dr. Hitchcock uses biofeedback to help individuals visualize subtle or unconscious speech processes with the goal of bringing them under conscious control. To date, Dr. Hitchcock and her team have successfully used visual biofeedback for treating speech sound disorders, motor speech disorders, accent reduction and voice disorders. Several research projects in the Clinical Biofeedback Lab are funded by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. If you are interested in learning more about Dr. Hitchcock’s research, please visit the MSU-CBL website at

Recent Publications:

Hitchcock, E.R., Swartz, M., Cabbage, K.L. (in press). Speech perception performance profiles of school-age children with childhood apraxia of speech, speech sound disorder, and typical development. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research.

Hitchcock, E.R., Ochs, L., Swartz, M.T., Leece, M.C., Preston, J.L., & McAllister, T. (2023). Tutorial: Using visual-acoustic biofeedback for speech sound training. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 32(1), 18-36. ttps://

Ochs, L., Leece, M., Preston, J., McAllister, T., & Hitchcock, E.R. (in press). Traditional and Visual-Acoustic biofeedback treatment via telepractice for residual speech sound disorders affecting /ɹ/: Pilot study. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups.

Benway, N. R., Preston, J. L., Hitchcock, E.R., Rose, Y., Salekin, A., Liang, W., & McAllister, T. (2023). Reproducible speech research with the artificial-intelligence-ready PERCEPT corpora. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 66, 1986–2009.

Cabbage, K. & Hitchcock, E.R. (2022). Clinical considerations for speech perception in school-age children with speech sound disorders: A review of the current literature. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 53(3), 768-785.

Hitchcock, E.R., & Koenig, L.L. (2021). Adult perception of stop consonant voicing in American-English-learning toddlers: Voice onset time and secondary cues. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 150(1), 460-477.

Benway, N. R., Garcia, K., Hitchcock, E., McAllister, T., Leece, M. C., Wang, Q., & Preston, J. L. (2021). Associations Between Speech Perception, Vocabulary, and Phonological Awareness Skill in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 64(2), 452-463.

Hitchcock, E.R., Koenig, L.L., & Ochs, L. (2021). Exploring voice onset time, place of articulation, and vowel context in children. In 12th International Seminar on Speech Production.

McAllister, T., Hitchcock, E.R., & Ortiz, J. (2020). Computer-assisted challenge point intervention for residual speech errors. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 6(1), 214-229.

Hitchcock, E.R., Cabbage, K., Swartz, M., & Carrell, T. (2020). Measuring speech perception using the Wide Range Acoustic Accuracy Scale: Preliminary findings. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups.

Hitchcock, E.R., Swartz, M.T., & Lopez, M. (2019). Speech sound disorder and visual biofeedback intervention: A preliminary investigation of treatment intensity. Seminars in Speech and Language, 40(2), 124-137.

Hitchcock, E.R., McAllister Byun, T., Swartz, M., & Lazarus, R. (2017). Efficacy of electropalatography for treating misarticulation of /r/. American Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 1-18.


Assessment and treatment of speech and voice disorders specializing in the use of biofeedback-enhanced intervention techniques.

Courses Taught:

CSND 512 Diagnosis in Speech Language Pathology
CSND 515 Voice Disorders
CSND 534 Speech and Hearing Science
CSND 595 Applying Research to Clinical Practice in Speech-Language Pathology I
CSND 596 Applying Research to Clinical Practice in Speech-Language Pathology II
CSND 835 Practicum in University Teaching
CSND 850, 851, 852 Directed Research I, II, III


Research Projects

Online assessment and enhancement of auditory perception for speech sound errors

In developmental speech sound disorder, errors affecting the accuracy and intelligibility of speech can pose a barrier to participation in academic and social settings [1, 2], with potentially life-long consequences [3]. Between 2-5% of speakers exhibit residual speech errors (RSE) that persist through adolescence or even adulthood [4, 5, 6] and are considered particularly challenging to treat. Previous literature has established the importance of auditory perceptual targets and feedback for speech-motor learning, including in RSE [7, 8], but there is a need for further research to measure auditory acuity and examine the effects of auditory-perceptual training in RSE. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced researchers to reassess certain practices, including what can be effectively accomplished online versus in person [9, 10]. Clinically, telepractice has proven essential for safe delivery of speech therapy services during social distancing [11]. Even after the pandemic subsides, we are likely to see a long-term shift toward online collection of research data and telepractice delivery of speech services. However, there is a pressing need for well-designed studies to support the validity of these remote approaches. The overall objective of this research study is to expand our basic understanding of perception-production relations while evaluating whether tasks involving perceptual assessment and auditory-enhanced training are valid in the online modality.