International Traffic In Arms Regulations
The International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) govern “defense articles and defense services” which are defined as items, information, software (defense articles) and technical assistance (defense services) specially designed or adapted for military use or which “provide a critical military of intelligence advantage.” Defense articles include certain satellites and spacecraft.
Defense articles and defense services are identified on the ITAR’s US Munitions List. ITAR-listed items that are not the tangible products of university fundamental research generally require a license for campus access and use by all foreign persons.
US Department of Commerce
The Export Administration Regulations (EAR) govern “dual use” items and information predominantly civilian in character but having military applications. Dual use items that are identified on the Export Administration Regulations Commerce Control List (CCL) have an Export Control Commodity Number (ECCN) and are of elevated strategic concern. Dual use items that are subject to regulation but are not identified on the CCL are termed “EAR99.” Dual use items may require an export license depending on the item, the recipient, the recipient’s citizenship or country of destination, and the item’s application.
The Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulations
The Office of Foreign Assets Control Regulations (OFAC) administers and enforces trade embargoes and economic sanctions. For reference, see their Lists of Sanctioned Countries and Specially Designated Nationals (SDNs) under the “Resources” tab on the OFAC website.
Violations of these export control regulations can lead to significant civil and criminal penalties.
- The Regulations governing U.S. Export Controls can be found at:
- The International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR)
- Export Administration Regulations (EAR)
- Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC)