A large variety of citation management tools are available to help you record and cite your research sources. If you are interested in a comprehensive listing of reference management software, Wikipedia offers a detailed page on this subject. The first part of this section below provides resource links for free online citation tools as well as citation tools built into commonly used software.
Following the links to citation tools, you'll find links to resources for the most common types of citation styles.
Citation Tutorial (Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library)
Introduction and citation overview as well as tutorials for APA, MLA, Chicago, and CSE/CBE Styles
Scholarly and Professional Style Manuals (University of No. Texas Libraries)
List of resources for various style manuals, including AAA, ACS, AMA, APA, APSA, ASA, CBE/CSE, Chicago/Turabian, and Harvard Reference System.
Find your style:
ACS Style (Trinity College Library)
This page includes a list of sources you may be citing in ACS style. When you click on any of the categories, a PDF handout opens that shows you how to properly cite the source.
ACS Style Guide (Williams College Libraries)
“This guide provides examples of the most commonly cited types of sources.”
ACS Style Guidelines (Chemistry Library, University of Wisconsin – Madison)
“This page provides examples for citing references in the text and the bibliography of a research paper. For more information, consult the ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Informattion, 2006 ed., or ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1997 ed.”
American Chemical Society (ACS) Citation Style (J.W. England Library, USciences)
Contains examples for citing journal articles, electronic journals, electronic versions of print journals, books, patents, MSDS, and websites in ACS style.
The AMA Manual of Style is used by authors publishing research findings and those involved in medical or scientific publishing. The 10th edition covers ethical and legal issues, authorship, conflicts of interest, scientific misconduct, and intellectual property, in addition to preparation of articles for publication, style, terminology, measurement, and quantification.
AMA Citation Style Quick Guide (St. Catherine University Libraries)
AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (Official AMA style website)
AMA One Page Style Guide (University of Illinois at Chicago, University Library)
"This style guide handout contains general AMA guidance and examples of common formats."
AMA Reference Citation Format (New York Medical College Health Sciences Library)
"This tip sheet contains most frequently requested information."
AMA Style Guide (Purdue OWL)
"These resources provide guidance on how to cite sources using American Medical Association (AMA) Style, 10th Ed., including examples for print and electronic sources."
AMA Style Guide: Paper Formatting (Western Oregon University, Hamersly Library)
Sample paper in AMA syle.
APA citation style was developed by the American Psychological Association and is used in the social sciences. The distinguishing characteristics of this citation style are that the publication date is placed immediately after the author's name, initials are used for the author's first name, and the title can be in lowercase.
APA Citation Style for Academic Writing (CWE Presentation from MSU Graduate Development Conference, Sept. 6, 2014; PowerPoint from Purdue OWL) (PDF) This PowerPoint presentation was delivered at Montclair State University's Graduate Development Conference. It covers the basics of APA citation style, including stylistics and documentation. Paper formatting guidelines - cover page, abstract, body, and references - are also discussed.
APA Sample Paper (CWE, Montclair State University; Distributed at MSU Graduate Development Conference, Sept. 6, 2014) (PDF) Attached is a sample paper in APA format.
APA Style – Carla Clark (Carla Clark, Medical Center Campus Library, Miami Dade College)
Posted on iTunes U: June 18, 2009
A series of basic video podcasts (PowerPoint slides with voice over) that address one specific question of APA style use per episode. Here is a list of some of the topics covered:
- FAQ about APA – No Author (1:34)
- FAQ about APA – No Date (2:19)
- FAQ about APA – PowerPoint Presentations (1:32)
- FAQ about APA – Citation Builders (1:56)
- Using APA Style for Academic Writing and Avoiding Plagiarism (19:46)
APA Style Guide (Purdue OWL)
"This resource, revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page."
APA Style Guide (Official APA style website)
The official APA style website offers tutorials, answers to frequently asked questions, and topic-specific help.
APA Style in Brief (Sprague Library, Montclair State University)
A downloadable PDF handout that gives examples of proper APA style formatting for books, works in an anthology, scholarly journal articles, articles with two or three authors, magazines and newspapers, online articles and web sites.
Cite Resources: American Psychological Association (APA) (The Ohio State University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on APA style with resources for citing electronic sources.
APSA (Trinity College Library)
This page includes a list of sources you may be citing in ASPA. When you click on any of the categories, a PDF handout opens that shows you how to properly cite the source.
Guide to APSA Style Basics (Meriam Library – California State University, Chico) (PDF)
This two-page handout outlines general rules for formatting a reference list and includes some examples for citing references in text and in the reference list.
Style Manual for Political Science (APSA, 2006) (PDF)
“This most recent, 2006 revision of the Style Manual for Political Science is predicated upon the publication of the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.” An overview of citations begins on page 17.
Using the APSA Format (Texas A&M University Libraries) (PDF)
“This brief guide provides examples of how to cite some of the most commonly used types of information resources: periodicals, books, and electronic publications.”
ASA Style (Trinity College Library)
This page includes a list of sources you may be citing in ASA. When you click on any of the categories, a PDF handout opens that shows you how to properly cite the source.
ASA Style Citations (Coates Library, Trinity University) (PDF)
This handout covers in-text citations and reference lists in ASA style. Citation examples for commonly used sources are included.
Formatting in Sociology(Purdue OWL)
A guide to formatting citations using the ASA style.
How to Prepare Bibliographic Citations: American Sociological Association (University of Connecticut Libraries, compiled by Kathy Banas-Marti) (PDF)
A quick guide to in-text citations and reference lists in ASA style.
Quick Style Guide (ASA) (PDF)
This three-page handout discusses plagiarism, text citations, and reference lists, with citation examples for some common sources.
This style was developed by the University of Chicago Press in 1906 and is widely used in the humanities and social sciences. The distinguishing characteristic of this style is the use of footnotes or back-notes.
Chicago Citation Style for Academic Writing (CWE Presentation from MSU Graduate Development Conference, Aug. 30, 2016) (PDF) This PowerPoint presentation was delivered at Montclair State University's Graduate Development Conference. It covers the basics of Chicago citation style.
Chicago Manual of Style Online (University of Chicago Press)
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is one of the standard styles of the publishing world. In 2006, CMS produced an online version with a yearly subscription fee of $30 per year. A reduced rate is offered for groups. The site does include some noteworthy free services. The Quick Guide section offers an overview of the Chicago Manual of Style and includes electronic source examples.
Chicago Sample Paper (CWE, Montclair State University; Distributed at MSU Graduate Development Conference, Sept. 6, 2014) (PDF) Attached is a sample paper in Chicago format.
Cite Resources: Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide (Ohio State University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on the Chicago Manual of Style with resources for citing electronic sources. It includes a link to the Notes-Bibliography System and Author-Date System.
CMS Video (YouTube, Karelia Stetz-Waters, Linn Benton Community College)
Posted on YouTube: April 2, 2009 | length 5:02
A no frills PowerPoint with voiceover that reviews how to use the Chicago Manual of Style in the humanities.
This style is from the Council of Science Editors, formerly known as the Council of Biology Editors. It is the citation style used in publications in the hard sciences.
Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style Guide (The Ohio State University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on CSE style with resources for citing electronic sources.
Council of Science Editors Documentation Style (University of Wisconsin, The Writing Center)
This resource provides an overview of the three systems of documentation in CSE style.
Writing Guides, Style Manuals and the Publication Process in the Biological and Health Sciences (University of Minnesota Libraries)
A collection of links to writing guides, style manuals, and other resources for writing in the biological and health sciences.
MLA (Modern Language Association) is the citation style used in the liberal arts and humanities. Note: A new edition of the MLA style manual was released in April 2016.
MLA Citation Style for Academic Writing (CWE Presentation from MSU Graduate Development Conference, Aug. 30, 2016; PowerPoint from Purdue OWL) (PDF) This PowerPoint presentation was delivered at Montclair State University's Graduate Development Conference. It covers the basics of MLA citation style, including stylistics, formatting, and documentation.
MLA Sample Paper Updated for 8th Edition (CWE, Montclair State University; Distributed at MSU Graduate Development Conference, Aug. 30, 2016) (PDF) Attached is a sample paper in MLA format.
MLA Style Center (Modern Language Association)
The MLA Style Center, a free companion to the MLA Handbook, is the only official Web site devoted to MLA style. This site provides the opportunity to submit your own questions, insights about MLA style from the MLA’s editors, sample research papers, instructions on formatting research papers, teaching resources, and tools for creating works-cited-list entries.
MLA Style Guide (Purdue OWL)
"This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (8th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page."
An open source tool for Macs for editing and managing a bibliography. The tool helps keep track of bibliographic information, associated files, and web links.
A web service that assists in formatting citations in MLA, APA and Chicago through the use of simple forms.
Endnote ... Bibliographies Made Easy
Endnote Software page to access tutorials, webinars, free trials, or purchase.
Making a Bibliography using Microsoft Word 2007
Posted on YouTube: December 11, 2007 | length 2:01 This video shows how to use the bibliography feature on Microsoft Word 2007.
Zotero (Center for History and New Media, George Mason University)
"A free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, and cite your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself. "