Citing Sources

OVERVIEW

A large variety of citation management tools are available to help you record and cite your research sources. If you are interested in a comprehensive listing of reference management software, Wikipedia offers a detailed page on this subject. The first part of this section below provides resource links for free online citation tools as well as citation tools built into commonly used software.

Following the links to citation tools, you'll find links to resources for the most common types of citation styles.

Citation and Documentation Exercises (companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
See the "Research Exercises" section. These exercises include a group of exercises on formatting for college papers according to APA, MLA, and CMS guidelines. To access these exercises, you need to register with the site. Registration is fast and simple. You just need to provide your name and create a password.

Citation Tutorial (Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Library)
Introduction and citation overview as well as tutorials for APA, MLA, Chicago, and CSE/CBE Styles

Documenting Sources for Research in the Humanities, Social Sciences, History, and Sciences(Hacker and Fister Research and Documentation Online)
See the "Documenting Sources" link for each of these categories.

Find Help with Citing Sources (Re:Writing from Bedford/St. Martin's)
Models for MLA, APA, Chicago, and CSE

List of Style Manuals by Discipline (Hacker and Fister Research and Documentation Online) "Research and Documentation describes four commonly used systems of documentation: MLA, used in English and the humanities; APA, used in psychology and the social sciences; Chicago, used in history and some humanities; and CSE, used in biology and other sciences. Following is a list of style manuals used in a variety of disciplines.

Scholarly and Professional Style Manuals (University of No. Texas Libraries)
List of resources for various style manuals, including AAA, ACS, AMA, APA, APSA, ASA, CBE/CSE, Chicago/Turabian, and Harvard Reference System.

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STYLES

Find your style:

AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (ACS) STYLE

ACS Style (Trinity College Library)

This page includes a list of sources you may be citing in ACS style. When you click on any of the categories, a PDF handout opens that shows you how to properly cite the source.

ACS Style Guide (Williams College Libraries)

“This guide provides examples of the most commonly cited types of sources.”

ACS Style Guidelines (Chemistry Library, University of Wisconsin – Madison)

“This page provides examples for citing references in the text and the bibliography of a research paper. For more information, consult the ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Informattion, 2006 ed., or ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors and Editors, 1997 ed.”

American Chemical Society (ACS) Citation Style (J.W. England Library, USciences)

Contains examples for citing journal articles, electronic journals, electronic versions of print journals, books, patents, MSDS, and websites in ACS style.

AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) STYLE

APA citation style was developed by the American Psychological Association and is used in the social sciences. The distinguishing characteristics of this citation style are that the publication date is placed immediately after the author's name, initials are used for the author's first name, and the title can be in lowercase.

APA Citation Format With Microsoft Word '07 - Research & Term Paper Part 1, Part 2, & Part 3 (David Taylor, Professor of Writing, UMUC aka peakdavid)
Posted on YouTube: October 26, 2008
A straightforward and no frills examination of APA style in three short videos. Part 1 addresses the uses and basic elements of APA style. Part 2 explains how to set up a Microsoft Word '07 document for APA style. Part 3 focuses on in-text citations and the corresponding list of references.

APA Exposed: Everything You Always Wanted to Know about APA Format but Were Afraid to Ask (Wendy K Mages, Ed.D., Harvard Graduate School of Education)
An online tutorial using PowerPoint slides and voice over that explores the proper use of APA formatting style. The tutorial is friendly and accessible. It was developed by a professor who wanted to help her students feel comfortable using APA in their writing and research.

APA Style – Carla Clark (Clarla Clark, Medical Center Campus Library, Miami Dade College)
Posted on iTunes U: June 18, 2009
A series of basic video podcasts (PowerPoint slides with voice over) that address one specific question of APA style use per episode. Here is a list of some of the topics covered:

  • FAQ about APA – No Author (1:34)
  • FAQ about APA – No Date (2:19)
  • FAQ about APA – PowerPoint Presentations (1:32)
  • FAQ about APA – Citation Builders (1:56)
  • Using APA Style for Academic Writing and Avoiding Plagiarism (19:46)

APA Style Guide (Purdue OWL)
"This resource, revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page."

APA Style Guide for Electronic Resources (Official APA style website)
Because electronic sources are constantly changing and evolving, the APA style website posts pages from its publication APA Style Guide to Electronic References (©2007).

APA Style in Brief (Sprague Library, Montclair State University)
A downloadable PDF handout that gives examples of proper APA style formatting for books, works in an anthology, scholarly journal articles, articles with two or three authors, magazines and newspapers, online articles and web sites.

APA Style: The Social Sciences (the companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
An online guide that includes information about APA in-text citations, reference lists, and formatting. A sample research paper is also posted.

Cite Resources: American Psychological Association (APA) (The Ohio State University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on APA style with resources for citing electronic sources.

An Introduction to APA Documentation (Nancy Linh Karls, Mike Shapiro and Brad Hughes of UW-Madison Writing Center)
Posted online: 2-20-09 | length 4:47
"If you need an introduction to the American Psychological Association's documentation system, which is widely used in the social sciences, this five-minute podcast (with images) will give a quick orientation to the basics of citing sources within your paper and creating a reference list."

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AMERICAN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION (APSA) STYLE

APSA (Trinity College Library)

This page includes a list of sources you may be citing in ASPA. When you click on any of the categories, a PDF handout opens that shows you how to properly cite the source.

Guide to APSA Style Basics (Meriam Library – California State University, Chico) (PDF)

This two-page handout outlines general rules for formatting a reference list and includes some examples for citing references in text and in the reference list.

Style Manual for Political Science (APSA, 2006) (PDF)

“This most recent, 2006 revision of the Style Manual for Political Science is predicated upon the publication of the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style.” An overview of citations begins on page 17.

Using the APSA Format (Texas A&M University Libraries) (PDF)

“This brief guide provides examples of how to cite some of the most commonly used types of information resources: periodicals, books, and electronic publications.”

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AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (ASA) STYLE

ASA Style (Trinity College Library)

This page includes a list of sources you may be citing in ASA. When you click on any of the categories, a PDF handout opens that shows you how to properly cite the source.

ASA Style Citations (Coates Library, Trinity University) (PDF)

This handout covers in-text citations and reference lists in ASA style. Citation examples for commonly used sources are included.

ASA Format (Cal State Library) This handout is a basic guide for writers using ASA style. It includes information on manuscript formatting, in-text citations, footnotes/endnotes, and references.

Formatting in Sociology (Purdue OWL)
A guide to formatting citations using the ASA style.

How to Prepare Bibliographic Citations: American Sociological Association (University of Connecticut Libraries, compiled by Kathy Banas-Marti) (PDF)

A quick guide to in-text citations and reference lists in ASA style.

Quick Style Guide (ASA) (PDF)

This three-page handout discusses plagiarism, text citations, and reference lists, with citation examples for some common sources.

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CHICAGO MANUAL OF STYLE (CMS)

This style was developed by the University of Chicago Press in 1906 and is widely used in the humanities and social sciences. The distinguishing characteristic of this style is the use of footnotes or back-notes.

Chicago Manual of Style Online (University of Chicago Press)
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is one of the standard styles of the publishing world. In 2006, CMS produced an online version with a yearly subscription fee of $30 per year. A reduced rate is offered for groups. The site does include some noteworthy free services. The Quick Guide section offers an overview of the Chicago Manual of Style and includes electronic source examples.

Chicago Style: History (the companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
This site includes examples of bibliographic, in-text and footnote entries in Chicago Style.

Citation Guide – Chicago Manual of Style (The University of Arizona Library)
Easy to read and navigate examples of bibliographic entries using the Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition).

Cite Resources: Chicago Manual of Style Citation Guide (Ohio State University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on the Chicago Manual of Style with resources for citing electronic sources. It includes a link to the Notes-Bibliography System and Author-Date System.

CMS Video (YouTube, Karelia Stetz-Waters, Linn Benton Community College)
Posted on YouTube: April 2, 2009 | length 5:02
A no frills PowerPoint with voiceover that reviews how to use the Chicago Manual of Style in the humanities.

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COUNCIL OF SCIENCE EDITORS (CSE) STYLE

This style is from the Council of Science Editors, formerly known as the Council of Biology Editors. It is the citation style used in publications in the hard sciences.

Council of Science Editors (CSE) Style Guide (The Ohio State University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on CSE style with resources for citing electronic sources.

Council of Science Editors Documentation Style (University of Wisconsin, The Writing Center)

This resource provides an overview of the three systems of documentation in CSE style.

CSE Style: Biology and Other Sciences (Bedford St. Martin’s)

“This section describes the style guidelines for writing in the sciences recommended by the Council of Science Editors in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed. (Reston: Council of Science Eds., 2006). Use the menu at the left for help with Finding Sources or Documenting Sources in the sciences.”

Writing Guides, Style Manuals and the Publication Process in the Biological and Health Sciences (University of Minnesota Libraries)
A collection of links to writing guides, style manuals, and other resources for writing in the biological and health sciences.

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MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION (MLA) STYLE

MLA (Modern Language Association) is the citation style used in the liberal arts and humanities.

Cite Resources: Modern Language Association (MLA) (The Ohio State University Libraries)
A well-designed and up-to-date how-to guide on MLA style with resources for citing electronic sources.

MLA Citation Format - Put Your Papers & Essays in Perfect MLA Style: P1 (David Taylor, Professor of Writing, UMUC aka peakdavid)
Posted on YouTube: October 27, 2008 | length 5:26
"MLA manuscript settings for a research paper in Modern Language Association (MLA) style. Also covers in-text citation formatting style (when, where and how to cite) and the Works Cited page."

MLA Documentation (Martine Courant, Writing Professor at Lansing Community College in Lansing, Michigan)
Posted on YouTube: January 29, 2008 | length 8:15
A thorough PowerPoint presentation with voiceover that walks you through how to use MLA formatting, how to integrate sources into your writing, and how to put together a works cited page.

MLA Style: English and Other Humanities (the companion website for Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference)
This page provides explanations and examples of bibliographic and in-text citations using MLA in English and other humanities. It also includes formatting guidelines and a sample research paper.

MLA Style Guide (Purdue OWL)
"This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed.) and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page."

MLA Style in Brief (Sprague Library, Montclair State University)
A downloadable pdf handout that gives examples of proper MLA style formatting for books, scholarly journal articles, articles from magazines and newspapers, articles online, and websites.

An Introduction to MLA Documentation (Nancy Linh Karls, Mike Shapiro and Brad Hughes of UW-Madison Writing Center)
Posted online: June 9, 2008 | length 3:40
"This short podcast (with images) will help you get the basics of MLA documentation, and will be especially useful to students in introductory literature classes."

Setting Your Essay to MLA format in Word 2007 (YouTube - Jeff Heidel)
Posted on YouTube: January 2, 2008 | length 5:46
A student-produced video by Jeff Heidel from Mount Si High School in North Bend, Washington on how to use Microsoft Word 2007 to format a paper in MLA.

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TOOLS

BibDesk
An open source tool for Macs for editing and managing a bibliography. The tool helps keep track of bibliographic information, associated files, and web links.

BibMe
A web service that assists in formatting citations in MLA, APA and Chicago through the use of simple forms.

Endnote ... Bibliographies Made Easy
Endnote Software page to access tutorials, webinars, free trials, or purchase.

Making a Bibliography using Microsoft Word 2007
Posted on YouTube: December 11, 2007 | length 2:01 This video shows how to use the bibliography feature on Microsoft Word 2007.

Zotero (Center for History and New Media, George Mason University)
"A free, easy-to-use Firefox extension to help you collect, manage, and cite your research sources. It lives right where you do your work—in the web browser itself. "

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