masked female student studying

Universal Design for Learning

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) offers a set of principles to inform your approach to teaching.

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a set of principles for curriculum development that give all individuals equal opportunities to learn.

The Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST)

The 3 Principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) are:

1. Multiple Means of Representation

Learners differ in the ways they perceive and comprehend information.

Three examples on how to provide multiple means of representation are the following:

  • Present course material in multiple media, such as a combination of written work (articles, textbook chapters, etc.) and multimedia (video lectures, relevant YouTube content, TED Talks, etc.).
  • Provide alternative text descriptions (alt text) to accompany diagrams and other images.
  • Ensure all multimedia content is accurately captioned.

2. Multiple Means of Action and Expression

Learners differ in the ways they can navigate a learning environment and express what they know.

Three examples on how to provide multiple means of action and expression are the following:

  • Vary the means in which students demonstrate competency and achievement of learning outcomes. Do not rely solely on one assessment method.
  • Enable opportunities for students to reflect on their learning experiences and receive feedback on performance and progress towards learning goals.
  • Leverage instructional technologies such as Perusall, Flipgrid, VoiceThread, and other spaces where students can express competencies in varied ways while gaining experience using different technologies.

3. Multiple Means of Engagement

Learners differ in the ways they can be engaged or motivated to learn.

Three examples on how to provide multiple means of engagement are the following:

  • Consider incorporating projects where students can select one of multiple avenues of completion (i.e. options to either deliver a presentation or compose a paper)
  • Encourage students to contribute individual learning goals of their own to achieve during the semester.
  • Incorporate individual, pair, small group, and large group activities.


References and Resources